Friday, May 22, 2020
SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH LITERACY IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS Key Issues and Promising Practices Diane August August Associates Report No. 61 February 2003 This report was published by the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR), a national research and development center supported by a grant (No. R-117-D40005) from the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), U.S. Department of Education. The content or opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Education or any other agency of the U.S. Government. Reports are available from: Publications Department, CRESPAR/Johns Hopkins University; 3003 N. Charles Street, Suite 200;Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Finally, it concludes with a plea for additional research on the development of literacy for English language learners and brief mention of two areas worthy of considerable additional attentionÃ¢â¬âtechnology and comprehension. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to thank Drs. Robert Slavin, Margarita CalderÃ ³n, and Jill Fitzgerald for their valuable feedback on an earlier version of this report. vii INTRODUCTION Immigration has brought about significant changes in the U.S. student population. In particular, the number and percentage of immigrants in schools have increased dramatically since 1970. From 1970 to 1995, the number of immigrant children, ages 5 to 20, living in the United States more than doubled, from 3.5 to 8.6 million. As the number grew, immigrant children represented a larger percentage of students in U.S. schools, increasing from 6% in 1970 to 16% in 1995 and 19% in 1997 (Ruiz de Velasco Fix, 2000). While their numbers have increased, English language learners (ELLs) lag significantly behind their fluent English-speaking peers in reading. For example, in California, ELLs participating in statemandated standardized testing performed worseShow MoreRelatedEducation And Literacy Development For Preschool Dual Language Learners956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbe in different stages of language development, and the educator must accommodate for each of these students. Magruder, Hayslip, Espinosa, and Matera (2013) state, Ã¢â¬Å"The US Census Bureau projects that by the 2030s, children whose home language is other than English will increase from roughly 22 percent to 40 percent of the school-age populationÃ¢â¬ (p. 9). This increase in second language learners will cause the educator to accommodate for those needs. Second language learners Ã¢â¬Å"need teachers who welcomeRead MoreBecoming a Reflective Teacher of English 1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs I reflect on my initial blog entry (see Appendix A), I realise that my understanding of literacy has developed expeditiously, from a simplistic view into a multi-faceted outlook that underpins learning throughout the curriculum. Although I had indicated an awareness of the interrelationship of speaking and listening, reading and writing (SLWR), I did not conduct in depth analysis that considers these elements specifically with the process of learning. This essay will discuss how my understandingRead MoreHow The Brain Benefits From Being Bilingual Essay862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSaussure, a French linguist from the early 20th century said, In the lives of individuals and societies, language is a factor of greater importance than any other. Language provides insight to one s culture, upbringing, likes, and dislikes. Being bilingual or multilingual in today s world has many benefits. According to a 2013 article in Time How the Brain Benefits From Being Bilingual by Jeffrey Kluger, multilingual brains are nimbler, quicker, better able to deal with ambiguities, resolveRead MoreLiteracy Learning Of A Child s Schooling Essay1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAssignment 1 - Literacy Learning in My Classroom Literacy is one the most fundamental learning areas of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling, which is crucial to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, and is the key indicator in becoming successful within society. Literacy according to the Ministry of Education, 2003, is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to understand, respond to, and use those forms of written language that are required by society and valued by individuals and communities.Ã¢â¬ (pg.19) This definition clearly highlights theRead MoreLanguage Acquisition Theories : Behaviorism, Linguistic Nativism, Social Interactionism, And Neurobiological Perspective1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdifferent language acquisition theories: behaviorism, linguistic nativism, social interactionism, and the neurobiological perspective. According to Christie and Enz (2011), behaviorist insinuates that nurturing, which is the way a child is taught or sculpted by parents and the surroundings, plays a principal position in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language advancement. The nativist perspective is the opposite of the behaviorist perspective; nativists believe every child has an innate ability to ascertain language andRead MoreAcademic English And Academic Language1753 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Abstract All students are Academic English Learners. Academic Language is not a common natural language that we use in our daily conversations or routines. It is something we acquire step by step through the learning process. However, in the case of English Language Learners, it is more complex that students use academic language they learn or are learning because they most likely use L1 at home and they probably do not have the opportunities to practice them at home, which will make ELLs takeRead MoreUnderstand Current National and Organisational Policies and Practices for Literacy Development1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUnderstand current national and organisational policies and practices for literacy development 1.1, Explain the aims and importance of learning provision for literacy development The learning provisions for development in literacy are extremely important and can be reached by using their language skills. They learn to communicate with others through three main ways: they are Speaking, Reading and Writing. These three areas interact with each other and develop the Childs self-expression and imaginationRead MoreThe Importance Of Reading783 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstruggling reader. At times, I find myself saying the following: Ã¢â¬Å"I love words and to write; however, I hate to read.Ã¢â¬ This statement may be shocking to you, the reader, but the reality is that while growing up, especially at home, I did not have a literacy-rich environment. I did not grow up around books. Thus, I, Kevin Christopher Cataldo, forced myself to Ã¢â¬Å"fake it,Ã¢â¬ until I Ã¢â¬Å"made it,Ã¢â¬ and I made it the day I graduated high school. The first twelve years of my academic career forced me to developRead MoreLanguage Learning Has Many Misconceptions1900 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLanguage learning has many misconceptions. One specific misconception is that second language learning is simpler for young children, but in all actuality language learning is difficult and complex for people of all ages (Ovando and Combs, 2012). The timeframe for acquiring a second language can be lengthy and varying greatly depending on the individual learner (Ovando et al., 2012). Teaching an ELL student to read English can be perplexing often causing the brain to multitask concurrently (OvandoRead MoreCharacteristics Of English Language Learners2031 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesteachers with English language learners. However, the researcher determined that three key areas of research effectively overlapped that, when combined, create an accurate picture of the current state of ELL teachers and use of the PLC model. This literature review establishes the characteristics of English language learners and their needs in the classroom, explores the current philosophy of profession al development needs specifically for teachers with English language learners, and outlines the
Sunday, May 17, 2020
While human warfare dates back to at least the 15th Century when the Battle of MegiddoÃ (15th century BC) was fought between Egyptian forces and a group of Canaanite vassal states led by the king ofÃ Kadesh, air combat is barely more than a century old.Ã The Wright brothers made the first flight in history in 1903 and in 1911 aircraft were first used for warfare by Italy using planes to bomb Libyan tribesmen.Ã In World War I, aerial warfare would play a major for both sides with dogfights first taking place in 1914 and by 1918 the British and German were making widespread use of bombers to attacking each others cities. By the end of World War I, more than 65,000 airplanes had been built. The Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk On December 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright piloted first powered airplane flights in history over the windy beaches of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.Ã The Wright brothers made four flights that day; with Orville taking the first flight that lasted a mere twelve seconds and traversed 120 feet.Ã Wilbur piloted the longest flight which covered 852 feet and lasted 59 seconds.Ã They choose Kitty Hawk due to the constant winds of the Outer Banks that helped to lift their aircraft off the ground. Aeronautical Division Created On August 1, 1907, the United States established the Aeronautical Division of the Office of the Chief Signal Caller.Ã This group was placed in Ã¢â¬Å"charge of all matters pertaining to military ballooning, air machines, and all kindred subjects.Ã¢â¬ TheÃ Wright brothersÃ made the initial test flights in August 1908 of what they hoped would become the Armys first airplane, the Wright Flyer. This had been built to military specifications.Ã In order to be awarded a military contract for their aircraft, the Wright brothers had to prove that their planes were able to carry passengers. First Military CasualtyÃ On September 8 and 10, 1908, Orville conducted exhibition flights and carried two different Army officers for a plane ride.Ã On September 17th Orville made his third flight carrying Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge, who became the very first U.S. military personnel to be a casualty from an airplane crash. In front of a crowd of 2,000 spectators, Lt. Selfridge was flying with Orville Wright when the right propeller broke causing the craft to lose thrust and go into a nosedive. Orville turned off the engine and was able to an altitude of about 75 feet, but the Flyer still hit the ground nose-first. Both Orville and Selfridge were thrown forward with Selfridge striking a wooden upright of the framework causing a fractured skull which led to his death a few hours later. In addition, Orville suffered several severe injuries which included a broken left thigh, several broken ribs, and a damaged hip. Orville spent seven weeks in a hospital recuperating. While Wright was wearing a cap, Selfridge was not wearing any headgear but had Selfridge had been wearing any type of helmet, he more than likely would have survived the crash. Due to Selfridges death, the U.S. Army required their early pilots to wear heavy headgear which was reminiscent of football helmets from that era. On August 2, 1909, the Army chose a revamped Wright Flyer which had undergone much more testing as the first powered fixed-wing aircraft.Ã On May 26, 1909, Lieutenants Frank P. Lahm and Benjamin D. Foulois had become the first U.S. serviceman to qualify as Army pilots.Ã Aero Squadron Formed The 1st Aero Squadron, also known as the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron, was formed on March 5, 1913, and it remains as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest flying unit.Ã President William Taft ordered the unit organized due to increasing tensions between the U.S. and Mexico.Ã At itsÃ¢â¬â¢ origin, the 1st Squadron had 9 airplanes with 6 pilots and approximately 50 enlisted men. On March 19, 1916, General John J. Pershing ordered the 1st Aero Squadron to report to Mexico and therefore the first U.S. aviation unit to participate in military action.Ã On April 7, 1916, Lt. Foulois became the very first American pilot to be captured even though he was only held for a day. Their experience in Mexico taught both the Army and the U.S. Government a very valuable lesson. The SquadronÃ¢â¬â¢s main weakness was that it had too few airplanes to properly conduct a military operation.Ã World War I was teaching the importance of each squadron having 36 total airplanes: 12 operational, 12 for replacements, and 12 more in reserve of 12. The 1st Aero Squadron consisted of only 8 airplanes with minimal spare parts. In April 1916 with only 2 airplanes in the flyable condition in the 1st Aero Squadron, the Army requested a $500,000 appropriation from Congress to purchase 12 new airplanes Ã¢â¬â the Curtiss R-2Ã¢â¬â¢s that were equipped with Lewis guns, automatic cameras, bombs, and radios After much delay, the Army did receive 12 Curtiss R-2s but they were practical for the Mexican climate and required alterations which took until August 22, 1916, to get 6 planes into the air. As a result of their mission, the 1st Squadron was able to General Pershing with the first aerial review conducted by a U.S. air unit. US Aircraft in World War I When the United States entered World War I on April 6, 1917, the countries aircraft industry was mediocre in comparison to Great Britain, Germany, and France, each of which had been involved in the war from the onset and had learned firsthand about the strengths and weaknesses of combat-ready aircraft.Ã This was true even though there had been more than ample funding provided by the U.S. Congress around the start of the war.Ã On July 18, 1914, the U.S. Congress replaced the Aeronautical Division with the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps.Ã In 1918, the Aviation Section then became theÃ Army Air Service.Ã It would not be until September 18, 1947, that the United States Air Force was formed as a separate branch of the U.S. militaryÃ under the National Security Act ofÃ 1947. Although the U.S. never reached the same degree of aviation production experienced by their European counter-parts countries during World War I, starting in 1920 numerous changes were made that resulted in the Air Force becoming a major military organization in time to help the United States prevail in World War II.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
POLS1301 Essay One Thomas Malthus 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population, Chapter 1 Thomas Malthus was an English philosopher who lived from 1766 to 1834, An Essay on the Principle of Population, is one of the most influential pieces of writing in history. Not only did it help to establish the modern field of economics, it aided Charles Darwin on his regarding evolutionary science. MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ core argument that runs a majority of the book is dedicated to the Ã¢â¬ËIron Law of PopulationÃ¢â¬â¢. This essay will seek to examine the premises of Thomas MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ 1798 an Essay on the Principle of Population and conclude on its argument as well as provide a justification of the invalidity of the argument. In addition, it will identify its multiple influences on historical contexts throughout time. The most persistent theory written by Thomas Malthus in 1798 regarding population growth and the effects on humanity, which is rather ironic as it has a almost lack of connection to the actual history of humanity and its population growth. In 100CE the population of the Earth was estimated to be under one billion people, roughly at 200 million people, following on almost 2 millennia later to 1800CE the population had seen a mere growth to approximately 800 million. During this time Malthus wrote a piece regarding the slow growth in population and why this was rate was the way things would be for the rest of human life. He put forward that the limits of human population growth are due toShow MoreRelatedThomas Malthus : The Principle Of Population843 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfamous English economist Thomas Robert Malthus published the wildly successful An Essay on the Principle of Population. Within his work, Malthus examined a myriad of economic topics from labor supply to wage rates, bu t most notably to modern economics and population observation, Thomas Malthus found that food production tends to increase arithmetically; while, population size tends to increase at a geometric (or exponential) rate (Malthus, 1798). From his findings, Malthus purported the demise ofRead MoreEssay on Thomas Malthus and the Principle of Population1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Introduction This essay deals with Thomas Malthus and the first two chapters of his Ã¢â¬Å"Essay on the Principle of PopulationÃ¢â¬ . At first I will provide a short biographical note on Malthus and I will also mention his main achievements. Then, a summary of Malthus main ideas of the first two chapters of mentioned work follows. Afterward, the essay concludes with a personal note. 2. A short biography Thomas Robert Malthus was born in 1766 (course textbook, n. d.) in Surrey, England, as the sixthRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution And The Public Health Revolution1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Since our origin, worldwide human population has steadily been on the rise. We humans emerged as a species about 200,000 years ago. In geological time, that is really incredibly recent. Just 10,000 years ago, there were one million of us. By 1800, just over 200 years ago, there were 1 billion of us. By 1960, 50 years ago, there were 3 billion of us. There are now over 7 billion of us. By 2050, your children, or your children s children, will be living on a planet with at least 9 billion otherRead MoreOpositions to Thomas Malthus Theory on Population Growth 694 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThomas Malthus was an early 19th century English scholar who specializes in political economy and demographics. One of his most well-known and influential works Ã¢â¬ËAn Essay on the Principle of Population argued that the increase in population growth would ultimately create social and economic problems for a nation. On the contrary, many famous political economists such as Ester Boserup and Julian Simon suggested different views about population and resource growth; which contradicts the MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ theoryRead MoreDarwins Theory of Evolution Essay702 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUniformitarianism. He was the author of Principles of Geology. His theory was that earth must be very old and that throughout time the planet has undergone processes that change the shape the land. That includes erosion, earthquakes, glacial movements, volcanoes, and the decomposition of dead plants and animals. (Port, 2006) Thomas Robert Malthus was born on February 13th, 1766, at Dorking, a town south of London. His theory about population was that population growth usually exceeds the amount ofRead MoreReverend Thomas, Robert Malthus969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReverend Thomas, Robert Malthus (b. February 13 or 14, 1766; d. December, 1834) Overview Reverend Thomas, Robert Malthus was a political/classical economist born in the late 1760Ã¢â¬â¢s. He studied at several different schools in the areas of mathematics, literature, and arts. Malthus was married in the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s and had three children. Malthus is most famous for his theories on population growth and how he proposed we go about controlling it. He later died in the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s at the age of 68. ChildhoodRead MoreThomas Robert Malthus Essays565 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMalthus Thomas Robert Malthus was a well-known economist as well as a clergyman. He was born on February 13th, 1766, in Surrey, England, and was the sixth of seven children. Malthus attended Cambridge in 1784 and graduated four years later with honors in mathematics. In 1789, Malthus became a deacon in the Church of England and curate of Okewood Chapel in Surrey. In 1798, he anonymously published his renowned work An Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future ImprovementRead MoreMalthus Principle Of Population Growth1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to Malthus, Economic Growth leads directly to population growth, and the latter tends to be more rapid than the former. MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ principle appears to have held for the pre-industrial world for millennia. However, the industrialising capitalist countries of Europe experienced low population growth rates during the 20th Century, in spite of their high economic growth rates. Why did MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ principle fa il to apply in this case? Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) was a famous Economist, famousRead More The Economic Agency of Women in MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay on the Principle of Population947 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAgency of Women in MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay on the Principle of Population It is difficult to examine the question of the division of labor within the household in MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ writings as it seems to be entirely outside the scope of his work. Though his conclusions are predicated on the relationship between men and women, from reading his writing one has the distinct impression that women are not really a factor. In spite of this, an examination of the implications inherent in MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ analysis is revealingRead More overpopulation a problem? Essay1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;This question seems to be question that is asked quite frequently lately. In the last two centuries, population has skyrocketed. In 1800 the world population was only at 1 billion, and today itÃ¢â¬â¢s estimated that the world population exceeds six billion people. With overpopulation, many problems have arisen. Some believe that overpopulation is the reason for world hunger, global population will reach crisis proportions by 2050, and some believe that overpopulation will bring the extinction of the
EQ: how did the domestic and foreign policies of George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency bridge the new nation together or tear it apart? George Washington was a president upon a hill. He set a first-rate example for future presidents by making difficult yet necessary decisions for the developing nation. His words and actions have resonated throughout history and can be seen through feats of other presidents. Some notable acts of Washington include his domestic and foreign policies, selection of the first presidential cabinet, helping the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial crisis, deciding whether to follow in Great BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s or FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps, his dealings with rebellion, and he even made a lasting impression through his farewell speech of which theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This started the whiskey rebellion. This was first big test for the federal government; would it be able to enforce its own laws? Washington sent out a force of 13,000 militiamen to stop the rebellion. He arrested 150 Pennsylvanians and pardoned 2 people who were sentenced to death. This all ties in with WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s domes tic policies: he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t view himself as better than the people but he still needed to be viewed and respected as a leader. This kept the nation together because it showed that Washington was a strong leader and was able to enforce the laws. As Washington left office in 1797, he left America with parting words that have been repeated by many other presidents throughout history: Ã¢â¬Å"so help me godÃ¢â¬ . This illustrates the impact Washington had on America. He truly was a president upon a hill in that he had no reference of how to run a stable democratic republic where every citizen would be satisfied. He had to make difficult decisions that were both necessary and proper to further the nation as a whole and gain international trust. He had the help of his cabinet members to solve the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic problems, stop rebellions, and avoid potentially dangerous alliances. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency helped bridge the new nation together by appropriately dealing with tasks at hand and preventing unnecessary involvement inShow MoreRelatedGeorge Washing Compared to John Adams1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesContrast WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s administration with the administration of John Adams Between the years of 1789 Ã¢â¬â 1800, there were two people given the job of being the President of these United States of America, George Washington, the first president, and John Adams, the second president. Between the years of 1789 Ã¢â¬â 1800, the United States of America was a very young country who was searching for its identity, a leader, and an economic basis on which to run the country. Before, 1789, when George WashingtonRead MoreThe Legacy Of George Washington Essay1885 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe revered and respected first president, George Washington, gave the US hope during one of its most difficult times. Using the events and circumstances of his life to learn and advance his position, he grew from humble beginnings into a legend. George Washington had a valuable, well-rounded education from ages seven to fifteen, studying all the subjects (Nevins and Graff). Due to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, George grew up under the supervision of his half-brother Lawrence at Mo unt Vernon, learning manyRead MoreThematic Essay on George Washington958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThematic Essay on George Washington The Electoral College elected Washington unanimously in 1789, and again in the 1792 election. John Adams was elected vice president. Washington took the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall. At first, he had not wanted the position. Washington proved himself to be an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character, he held regularRead MoreCharacteristics Of George Washington1238 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGeorge Washington was the first President of the United States and was the only one in history to ever be elected unanimously. Although he went in without notion of how the presidency was going to work in the new republic, he still served two terms without any opposition. This goes to show how truly intelligent and successful George Washington was as President. His personality, policies, and ideas greatly inspired the prosperity and evolution of the government, foreign policy, economic policy inRead MoreAmerican Foreign Policy During World War II1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmerican foreign policy shifted drastically from the birth of the new nation to the beginning of the 20th century. George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Farewell Address in 1796 left an admonition for the nation and isolationist roots from its founding President; howeve r, by the early 1900s, William McKinley and other American Presidents took part in imperialistic foreign policy that represented a complete digression from WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine. After World War I and before the impending Second World War, AmericanRead MoreHispaniola Essay1135 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmarines to impose strict martial law on Haiti in the summer of 1915. During that period, Secretary of State Lansing drafted a treaty granting the United States control of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s finances. In this case, the United States moved away from WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s argument for Ã¢â¬Å"diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing (Early Documents on U.S. International Relations, pg. 4)Ã¢â¬ by using military force to stabilize the economic instability on Hispaniola. However, U.S. involvementRead MoreGeorge Washington s President Of The United States961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeneral George Washington, first president of the United States, was instr umental in establishing the procedures to govern an independent nation. The basic premise of WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Farewell Address was to announce his decision to retire. Aside from defending his administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s record, his message also encouraged and instructed future leaders to follow the principles necessary to successfully govern America as a unified, free nation in regards to domestic and foreign affairs. First and foremostRead MoreAnalyze the contributions of Washing and Jefferson in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution.1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn 1789 George Washington was elected as the First President of the United States of America under the Constitution. In the following years after George Washingtons administration was John Adams and succeeding him was the Third President of the United States Thomas Jefferson. George Washington and Thomas Jeffersons administrations contributed to establishing a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution. They strengthened the national government by passing important legislature, peacefulRead MoreEssay on George Washingtons Pesidency1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGeorge Washingtons Presidency George Washington is regarded as a natural leader and the father of our country. He was the first president under the Constitution, not the first president of the United States. From the very beginning, he came into a job full of problems and a mile long to-do list. He had to set up the Judiciary Branch, deal with uprisings and conflicts between the natives and the western settlers, and try to keep together a nation that was falling apart. He created a group ofRead More The Issues Of George Washington Essay example664 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Issues nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;With a new nation facing overwhelming difficulties, George Washington faced the challenges of being the first president to run, shape, and build the foundations of the newly formed United States. Washington came into office with the country in heavy debt, and an empty treasury. With the issues President George Washington was facing, he proved to be a paragon leader. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;One such issue was that of the National debt and creating a National
Introduction Traditional market structure suggests that all market decisions should be based on utilitarian theory. We often witness market decisions which neglect other important aspects of the market activity. As a result, we appear under the impact of one-side unbalanced decisions which ultimately neglect the principles of morality and moral theology of the marketplace. We will write a custom essay sample on New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority or any similar topic only for you Order Now Rising fares and tolls by MTA Ã¢â¬Å"After an unusually vigorous and spirited debate, the board of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority voted to raise fares on subways, buses and commuter railroads and tolls on bridges and tunnelsÃ¢â¬ (Chan, 2007a). Why is it so surprising that not all members of the MTA board wanted to turn into the proponents of fares and tollsÃ¢â¬â¢ increase? Does this mean that more and more political and business players realize the importance of morality in taking market decisions? Evidently, the situation is much worse than one may imagine. One may initially think that increasing the fares will lead to less traffic congestion, and will urge more people to use public transport; yet, the public transport fares are being raised, too. From the viewpoint of those who vote for raising fares and tolls in New York, this decision is the first step towards Ã¢â¬Å"fiscal responsibility. The authority had for long applied windfalls and real estate taxes hoping that someone would bail us out and turning a blind eye to our responsibility to put this MTA on a firm future monetary structureÃ¢â¬ (Chan, 2007a). Simultaneously, from the viewpoint of morality and theology of the marketplace, commercial activity is not limited by rational market decisions, but also Ã¢â¬Å"confronts us with the moral predicamentsÃ¢â¬ (Gregg, 2004). The major concern within this situation is that the decision to raise fares has completely neglected the position of those whom we traditionally consider to be vulnerable populations. The representative of Working Families Party is confident that raising fares will seriously hit working people (Benjamin, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Today, once again middle class New Yorkers and those struggling to make it, are bearing the costÃ¢â¬ , Rep. Anthony Weiner said (Benjamin, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"A fare hike now is the wrong choice for New York. It would hit many people who are struggling hard to make ends meet and hurt the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. [Ã¢â¬ ¦] This fare hike will hit 86 percent of the riding public who use fare discounts. These include pay-per-ride bonus MetroCards and 7- and 30-day unlimited-ride passes. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also a double whammy for most L.I.R.R. and Metro-North commuters whose railroad fares would go up!Ã¢â¬ (Chan, 2007b) The discussed fare hike will also cause the bonusesÃ¢â¬â¢ decrease for riders (from 20 to 15 percent), and the discounted fare will cost $1.74 instead of $1.67 (Chan, 2007b). The problem is that New Yorkers pay more than they have to for the transport they use. Ã¢â¬Å"In 2005, riders paid 55 percent of the costs of running the subways and busesÃ¢â¬ (Chan, 2007b). Objectively, this is much higher that the riders in other cities pay: those in Boston do not compensate more than 29 percent of the discussed costs, and those in Philadelphia pay no more than 37 percent (Chan, 2007b). As the M.T.A reports $140 million reductions, does this mean that they will make the riders pay this amount through higher fares and tolls? Doubtlessly, the suggested fares and tolls increase will help compensate the under-financing of the MTA by the state Government, but if the decision framework remains unchanged, this compensation will actually take place for the account of the already mentioned vulnerable populations. Ã¢â¬Å"To rely upon utilitarianism as the moral Ã¢â¬â philosophical foundation of the case for the market creates tremendous difficulties for CatholicsÃ¢â¬ (Gregg, 2004). The utilitarian desire to find the greatest good and to satisfy the masses does not meet the ethical and moral criteria of religion. Those who were taking the decision to raise the fares and tolls in New York have neglected one essential aspect in their decision making: when one looks for the means to produce the greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people, one has to perform numerous calculations and to produce the decision which satisfies everyone. From the viewpoint of moral theology, such calculations in market decision-making are simply impossible. Ã¢â¬Å"No person can make such an assessment without admitting a tremendous degree of ignorance about all the possible effects that might proceed from a freely chosen actÃ¢â¬ (Gregg, 2004). The MTA governors have evidently gone beyond their reasonable abilities, trying to persuade us that that the future with raised fares and tolls for everyone was better than other possible alternatives. The MTA board members view the increased tolls and fares as the means to close the gaps in MTAÃ¢â¬â¢s budget and to provide safe and reliable system of transportation for the New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens. However, it is not the ultimate goal for those who use public transport and belong to vulnerable layers of the city population. Conclusion The moral theology of marketplace rejects any uniform measures in defining the goals of decision making. This is why the governors should have considered the financial opportunities of those who cannot afford paying more for using public transport. The diversified structure of prices would resolve all moral and ethical issues, and would not create serious obstacles on the way towards better functioning of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s transportation systems. References Chan, S. (2007a). Board approves subway and bus fare increase. The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/19/mta-board-approves-fare-and-toll-increases/ Chan, S. (2007b). Hundreds stranded online by botched M.T.A. Ã¢â¬Å"WebinarÃ¢â¬ . The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/10/mixed-reaction-to-new-mta-fare-plan/?hp Gregg, S. (2004). Ethics and the market economy: Insights from Catholic moral theology. IEA Economic Affairs, June, pp. 4-10. How to cite New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about thePre Departure Programs. Answer: Pre-Departure Programs and their Overall Impact Pre-departure programs are the events that are focused on preparing the students for who are selected into the study programs in foreign countries. These programs provide the valuable information to the students during their sessions, which will help the students in managing their lives in foreign countries. Information related to culture differences, medical and money issues, visas, plane tickets, etc are being imparted to the students in the predeparture programs. The pre-departure program helps in providing the opportunity to the students for receiving accurate, as well as, realistic information prior to their beginning of study programs (Wallace and Webb, 2014). The objective of the pre-departure program is to develop the skills in the students that will help them to adjust and cope up with any kind of challenges in a successful manner. However, it is believed that for succeeding in these pre-departure programs, students have to adjust to their personal lives and have to give up several aspects of their life. As pre-departure programs are focused on developing the understanding of different cultural, social, as well as, intellectual experiences that the students will experience in the foreign country. These programs are too vast and different from the personal beliefs, culture, values, as well as, attitudes that the student finds it difficult to manage these programs in their daily life (Herbst de Cortina et al., 2016). As a result, the students start isolating himself with the leisure activities and the social activities to devote more time to the understanding of these programs for gaining success in the pre-departure programs. There are so many sessions in pre-departure programs that are meant for the intellectual development involving language learning and knowledge, expansion of the international perspectives, as well as, for personal development. The overarching aim and objectives for developing the intellectual level of the student including personal development and promoting and expanding the social change create so much burden and stress on students for implementing these things successfully (Danaher, Bowser, and Somasundaram, 2008). Hence, students avoid spending time in leisure activities and isolate them from social life. In order to meet the main goals and objectives of the pre-departure programs, the students focus on developing skills and concentrate most of the time on these sessions and their learnings. They start isolating themselves from all other activities, which also include less family time, no social activity, and other extra-curricular activities. They are focused on expanding their perspectives and learnings gained in the pre-departure programs and its sessions that they sometimes start ignoring the other aspects of life (Jiang, 2016). There are so many things that are being included in the session of the pre-departure programs that students used to spend most of the time of their day attending those sessions. As a result, the students feel so overloaded as the curriculum of these programs are so large in comparison to the ones they used to have. Moreover, the students tend to lose their own cultural values and beliefs in order to adapt themselves to the culture of the foreign country. For instance, since the focus of the pre-departure programs is to teach the culture learning of the country to the students, they used to spend most of their time in learning about the culture of their destination country, which in turn, takes the student away from their own culture. Moreover, they start spending less time with their previous social life and culture in an attempt to adopt the culture and social life of their destined country as the students are trained to adopt that in such kind of programs (Bankston, 2004). As a result of having no leisure, as well as, lost social life, the students develop a habit of leading a lonely life and cut them off from the entire social circle, which in turn can lead to the development of stress and anxiety. As a result, due to inefficient management of the programs, the students tend to have more adjustment problems in abroad (Liu and Rook, 2013). The lost social life and no time for personal activities will have a serious implication on my life. It is very important to have a balance between the professional or academic and personal life. The incapability of the student to handle this burden and over the stress of succeeding in these pre-departure programs actually leads to loss of personal life. Hence, it is very important to balance ones personal life and effective management of the sessions and learnings of this kind of programs without having negative impacts on ones life. References Bankston, C. (2004). Social Capital, Cultural Values, Immigration, and Academic Achievement: The Host Country Context and Contradictory Consequences.Sociology of Education, 77(2), pp.176-179. Danaher, P., Bowser, D. and Somasundaram, J. (2008). The student departure puzzle: do some faculties and programs have answers?.Higher Education Research Development, 27(3), pp.271-280. Herbst de Cortina, S., Arora, G., Wells, T. and Hoffman, R. (2016). Evaluation of a Structured Predeparture Orientation at the David Geffen School of Medicine's Global Health Education Programs.American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94(3), pp.563-567. Jiang, X. (2016). Effect of Pre-Departure Culture Preparation Courses on Student Learning during International Fieldwork.Creative Education, 07(09), pp.1237-1243. Liu, B. and Rook, K. (2013). Emotional and social loneliness in later life: Associations with positive versus negative social exchanges.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(6), pp.813-832. Wallace, L. and Webb, A. (2014). Pre-departure training and the social accountability of International Medical Electives.Education for Health, 27(2), p.143.