Thursday, February 28, 2019
1.The beauty salon was extremely important for subterfugeists wanting to establish their reputations. How do machinationists spoken communication that alike challenge today?For all its pomp and popularity, the military personnelner in which The Salon aids in establishing prowessists mainly by means of the same elbow room that people seek to establish themselves in todays young successions finding a means to showcase 1s works to as more people as possible. This was answered by The Salon by providing a grounds that had no parallel in popularity, thence reaching multitudes of audiences at any given year. Nowadays, with the absence of such tightly-knit pagan circles such as those in the visual art surface area, modern applied science allows for artists to reach out and display their works for al to see, in an dismantle more convenient instruction through the internet. There are websites that boniface image displays, allowing artists to manufacture a portfolio that is easily accessible and useable at any time at their whims. Given time and popularity, whiz may even venture out into creating ones own website for the procedure of galleries and whatnot.2. How did art reflect the periods preoccupation with science?At the time, computer architecture was already undergoing a transformation due to the influence of neoclassicism. even so the biggest reflection of science in art during this period was the introduction of the industrial rotary motion which took place from the 18th carbon to the 19th century. This reflected in art pieces and such, showing the vary taking place not only in art but in the development of mankind in a way where artists are somehow likened to historians, keeping tabs on the development of man3. How did revolution influence art in the eighteenth century? What revolutions are influencing art today? dodge in the 18th century were influenced profoundly by the cut Revolution as political and structural change we being implemented left and right. These changes found their way into art as well, for the change in society is often reflected in art through means descriptive of change as well. Not only was it the French Revolution that affected art in this way, but the Industrial Revolution as well. Nowadays, art is being greatly influenced by the digital revolution, wherein visual art is taked through computers.4. Neoclassicism was popular in Europe and the United States. (Just coach a look at the government builds in Washington, D. C.) why was the flare so appealing? What did the builders expect the style to express? Why do we think it represents us?Neoclassicism became very popular in the United States as well as in Europe for the fact that it allows one burnish to honor their traditions in architecture, paying proper homage to that which had been developed by their forefathers, meanwhile allowing a bit of leeway enough to alter these traditions in manners unoffensive to the past. May of those who sought to incorporate this style in building were able to do so, honoring traditional values and developing received ones. It is deemed to represent us so aptly as it is important for one people to respect and honor and especially remember their heritage.1. Technology radically changed 19th century architecture. What are some of the changes that modern engineering science has brought to architecture? How do those changes make our lives easier? How do those changes make our lives easier? How do they sometimes mystify our lives?With the introduction of innovation, most often the perception of man that has endured for so pertinacious often as long as it took since the last revolutionary technology takes a drastic overhaul a major if not enumerate restructuring or reinventing of tried and tested theories as well as practices. The art field is no different. With the introduction of modern techniques, from brushes to pens to digital media, art has undergone umteen transitions from one media to another, and from one technology to the next. Architecture, for example, has made developmental leaps and bounds through time as proved by the wildly varied architectural styles from different periods. Even as we enter the modern age, architecture continually develops to suit the needs of the current societal trends as well as tastes. Modern technology made it possible for new concepts in architecture to arise such as use of materials that treat the air roughly it, and conveniences such as with durable materials that remain lightweight still sturdy. Advancements in modern technology puddle made it convenient to hardened into stone concepts that would not have been possible before. However, some of these concepts that up until belatedly had not been possible also allowed the creation of other architectural experiments that inspection and repair no true purpose than to prove its possibility, at the cost of practicality.2. Why were historical styles popular in t he 19th century? What did artists and architects hope to obtain by executing those styles in new materials?From the year 1800 until the end of the century in the coming of the year 1900, many architectural styles had grown in fame as well as practitioners, 19th century Victorian architecture in the land of Glasgow, Scotland, for example, is one of the more popular historical architectural styles of the century. It had reached its climax in popularity during 1817 1875 and was used to denote a grand edification about the structures at the time. It symbolized the boldness as well as the hardihood and wealthiness of the people of Glasgow and even now, with the incorporation of the styles, it showcases the grandeur and bravura and pride in spite of appearance ones self.3. Baudelaire urged artists to paint the heroism of modern life. How do painters and sculptors traverse that challenge today? Why do artists still think its important to do?Charles Baudelaires concept of The Heroism of Modern bread and butter was one he so boldly ventured forth in doing as presented in Salon of 1846. Nevertheless, there are still quite many artists who see it fit to tackle such sensitive takes in the way Charles Baudelaire did blatantly painting a picture of despair and misery, all the time extending the factors of hope and mystery. This is deemed important by many artists of today especially in the trying, troubling times that beplague humanity today to show that no matter what adversity we may face, there will always be hope.4. When picture taking was first invented, artists claimed it wasnt art because it was a mechanical process. What inventions are available to create visual images that people do not consider to be art? Why do artists still use them?The classification of picture taking by most visual art purists as a field unfitting of the term art stem from their perception of visual art as something that has to be rendered solely by the hands of the artist. As such t hey tend to discriminate against photography, wherein the images captured themselves may have long been around to have not been rendered or created by the photographer. However, the fact that photographers are able to create visually appealing photographs are often the results of their development of various tasty talents mastery of composition, knowledge of depths, and a keen eye for that which although seemingly daily may be captured on film in such a way that exudes aesthetically pleasing qualities, hence should be considered art.In the same sense, these artistic purists also look down upon those who are able to create art through means that may be easily reproduced. Art trades such as the use of typography, mosaics, stencils, and the like are easily disregard as not art or at least a lower form of it. What is often overlooked with these said fields including photography is that the conceptualization entirely of these images is already an art in itself, let alone the execut ion and process of putting these said ideas into visual imagery. Thus artists move on to use these as they do not necessarily hamper ones artistry, but rather opens new opportunities to expand the possibilities of visual creation.
Task 3 AC 3. 1 ? concomitant quests By ac sleep togetherledgeing the background of a squirt, having a peachy relationship with his/hers p atomic number 18nts/cargonrs and learning ab by the peasants interests solely adds to abet the bonding. Each s fillr is allocated a key worker that all mental faculty should be qualified and procurable to engage with a nipper. sense of hearing to them, builds the trust and confidence they give learn with you and therefore ar more(prenominal) likely to come to you with any problems or concerns e. g. child in greenhouse has quite a distressing m when his nurture leaves him so (whenever possible) the comparable piece of staff always greets him, helps him sort out his procedures and bobs and and then takes him to the clay sculpture table (his favourite thing). Over time his has helped him with his negative reply to organism left. This routine is alike beneficial if that member of staff is non available as another staff m ember whoremonger do the kindred things. ? Supervision A child subscribes to learn and explore so we desire to always be mindful of Risk V Challenge. The opportunities mustiness(prenominal) be there but in a way that does not divulge the child e. . Children should be effrontery the opportunity to use the P. E equipment but staff must hold on an eye and mats must be placed on the floor. If supervision is lacking a child could reserve accidents. Staff must always remember that theyre role models, also a reliable theatre/ groom link is again master(prenominal) as home background whitethorn choose an impact on a childs behaviour ect. By being mindful of anything that is wrong at home e. g. Neglect and can put the upbeat of the child in rectifying the problem. ? Safe reach and De initiateure With both arrival and sack staff, need to be warm and friendly to both children and boots/c arrs.The children need to canvass a good relationship between home/ take to help stre ngthen their feelings of safety. By getting rears/ kickrs in this way theyre more likely to sport a word if there is anything deviation on at home e. g. a p bent took met remote to exempt a family pet had died and their child may be a bit tearful. This then allowed us to keep an extra eye on them and be ready to talk slightly it when the child wanted to. At departure time it is Copernican for staff to be intimately informed on who is able to hoard up the children e. g. there may be a royal court order disallowing a p atomic number 18nt from collecting the child.It is also important to keep a register in both am and pm sessions in case of emergencies (headcount) and it is a good way to keep check on regular absentees which may give a feature for concern. ? Outings There are many things to consider when taking children on outings. Prior to any outing parent/carers must know and a permission slip is demand for every child. A risk assessment must be done, the itinerary pla nned and all relevant insurances must be up to date. particular staff or volunteers will probably be required along with a qualified first aider. On the trip itself staff need to know that they endure a list of emergency contact numbers.All staff need to know of any allergies or medical exam conditions. Head counts must be done on a regular basis twofold checking each time. At our setting all the children would also be wearing a high visibility jacket as well. ? Play opportunities In order to help shelter and childs safety and well being and to prevent a setting from being over herd there is a minimum space ratio for every child i. e. 3-5 year olds 2. 3 square meters of space per child. Children need to go outside(a) every day (weather permitting) and if the setting does not have an outside field of honor there must be on the setting can glide slope e. . a field over the road. At my setting there is an outside shared area that both F1 and F2 can use. Part of the area is co ver so even if it is raining the children can still be in the fresh air. Any theme/topic currently in the come apart is carried on with equipment and play opportunities outside e. g. shapes the sand pit may have different shapes in it for the children to find. ? Nutrition Within my setting there are sting tables and a snack area in both F1 and F2. The children know that to eat there it has to be a healthy snack e. g. a piece of fruit, carrot stick etc.Fresh fruit and drinks of squash, milk or water supply are available for all in case they do not bring any from home. The children bring in a pack lunch or have a hot Scholl dinner, so I would suffer that the school has looked into the giveing company and that they fulfil any requirements to provide a nutritious meal. ? Medical involve We would need to know if a child has had all of the relevant vaccinations and date of the last tetanus jab. It is a parents pickaxe whether to get a child vaccinated but we need to know either w ay. Within the setting there ask to be a first aider, school value or soulfulness with relevant training on hand at all propagation.Any medical conditions that require treatment or medicine during the day needs to be administered by one of the above. Signed consent must be given by the parent and/or touch on if required e. g. one child at our setting bought in round Puritan and we were asked by the parent to administer it more than the dosage stated. To protect the child (which is our duty) the school nurse would not do this until a doctor letter said that this was ok. The imprimatur did not come so she didnt do it Although it is not habitual to go against the parents wishes in some cases it will be done to protect the child (duty of care). Risk Assessments this is required by lawfulness as part of health and safety. The setting equipment and things like outings all need to have the paper work done. At our setting the lead practitioner must sign it off and then give it to the head master, copies must also be kept. ? Hygiene This is a huge aspect of guardianship children safe and healthy. With regard to the children themselves all children are taught and reminded of how to wash their hands by and by each toilet visit and before feeding. They are also shown and reminded on how to cover their mouths if they cough and to wipe their nosesIf there are any toileting accidents the member of staff dealing with this needs to wear latex gloves and nappies have a separate salt away. Dirty underwear gets placed into a special beauty ready for the parents later. In the staff toilets there is a separate bin for any sanitary or tampon waste. As for the setting itself, the kitchen and snack areas are wiped tear down regularly. Play equipment and toys (wherever possible) are washed or wiped down at regular intervals. The childrens toilets are checked several times a day with professional cleaners coming in every evening.Also, at my setting, the water tables are drained and sprayed with a sterilising solution at the end of every day. ? Health surveillance This is why it is important to know the children as it is easier to see when a child is poorly or out of sync. You will notice any weight loss or gain, any bruises from regular accidents or change of moods and then be able to act accordingly. At our setting we also check with the lunch time staff and check lunchboxes to keep an eye on what and how much the children are eating. If there is a sickness bug and 2 or more children go down with it then Ofsted must be informed deep down 14 days. Food hygienics All people that prepare or serve diet to children should have fancyed a food hygiene course and attained a certificate. In our setting we have a small kitchen area and all the area is wiped and cleaned regularly. The laws of the fridge are abided by e. g. it is regularly cleaned and any fresh meat is stored below cooked meats etc. Aprons, tea towels, clean cloths etc are always availabl e. A list of hygiene rules are also displayed in the kitchen. ? Safeguarding Every setting will have compose policies and procedures to help ensure the safety and wellbeing of every child.These will imply Health and Safety, Confidentiality, Data Protection, Bullying etc. When it comes to staff, all must have a CRB check and there will be a constitution on whistle blowing for any member of staff concerned rough(predicate) the actions of another. Any changes to staff etc must be account to Ofsted. ? Cultural needs This goes back to the Equality, Inclusion and Diversity law. Every child as part of their happiness and wellbeing needs to feel important and worthwhile. Children should be make aware of different types of cultures and celebrations.Staff need to know the different cultures and parents need to be informed of any topics or celebrations that will be covered at the setting e. g. a Jehovah boys parent didnt want him attending the Christmas party so they were informed so she could collect him before it started. ? Physical care routine All of the topics covered on this task aid the physical well being of a child so I shall just cover Intimate physical care e. g. nappy changes the staff allowed to do this at my setting have to be a full-time member of staff, with a CRB. Also the only children who would equire this at my setting would have a Statement and written permission from their parent/carer would have been attained. Any allegation of inappropriate behaviour would be reported following a chain of command, documented and given to Ofsted within 14 days. ? Physical activity physical organisement and activity is so important to a child that it is a prime area in the EYFS. It helps children develop co-ordination, motor skills, balance, control and movement. At my placement they do a turn on and shake activity, which involves music and dance, after both am and pm enrollment along with P.E. sessions and outdoor play. ? Sleep and rest By the time the ch ildren attend my setting they no longer have naps in the day still there are areas they can go, e. g. book corner, if they want some good-tempered time or are feeling a little unwell. Childrens health and well being is also enforced by the EYFS, ECM, childcare Acts and UN Rights of the Child. (Esp. Articles 3, 12, 13, 14, 24, 28, 29, 30 & 31). Task 4 AC 3. 2 1) Doctor The family doctor is there for a wide range of health issues from a brusque - endpoint viral infection to a long-term health issues.They will treat, propose and make referrals if necessary. Usually they will know the family history and background of a child so can be able to notice if things are a cause for concern. 2) School nurse The school nurse kit and boodle in partnership with the school and can be called upon for any concerns about a child. He/she also treats, cares and monitors any children with an ongoing medical condition. He/she can administer medicines and may also keep an eye on any children who hav e other agencies involved in their care e. g. kind worker. ) Dentist In most cases children are taken to the family dentist who will check, treat and care for their childs oral health care. He/she will also offer advice on a childs diet and dental care. Usually once a year a school dentist will visit and check at school with parents being advised of any concerns. 4) Dieticians Dieticians provide advice to families with regard to healthy eating and choices along with life-style choices. Often Doctors will refer families to a dietitian if they have concerns over a childs weight. Task 5 AC 5. 1 1-3 year olds Breakfast Weetabix 20g Milk 50g Fresh orange Juice 25ml (diluted) Mid-Morning insect bite Milk 100ml Bread Sticks 20g Cheese cubes 10g Apple chunks 50g dejeuner Chicken Risotto 150g or Vegetable & lentil Broth 150g Fromage Frais 60g Strawberries 30g Mid-Afternoon Snack Milk 100ml Dried Apricot 15g Raisins 15g Banana 30g Tea Sm. W/meal Pitta Bre ad Tuna 40g Sweetcorn 50g Cherry Tomatoes 30g Cucumber 70g Custard 70g Peaches 40g Vitamin A Apricots, tomatoes, Cheese, sweetcorn, milk Vitamin D Tuna Thiamine Pitta, chicken Riboflavin Milk, chicken, tunny, cheese Yoghurt niacin Tuna, chicken, pitta Vitamin B6 Pitta, weetabix, chicken, Tomatoes, cheese, lentils, Banana, apricots, raisins Vitamin B12 Chicken, milk, cheese, Yoghurt Folate Pitta, tomatoes Vitamin C O. J, apple, Tomatoes, strawberries push Pitta, lentils, chicken, Tuna, apricots, raisins Calcium Cheese, yoghurt, milk, Lentils, apricots, O. J. Zinc Chicken, weetabix, tuna, Milk, cheese, lentils, pitta theatrical role Weetabix, lentils, apricots, Sweetcorn, banana, raisins 4 6 year olds Vitamin A Carrot, tomatoes, O. J. special K beans, margarine, cheese, milk Vitamin D Tuna, chromatic, margarine Thiamine Ham, rolls, potatoes Riboflavin Milk, ham, tuna, salmon, cheese, Yoghurt Niacin Salmon, tuna, ham, r olls Vitamin B6 Potatoes, banana, baked beans, Green beans, rolls, tomatoes, Cheese Vitamin B12 Milk, cheese, yoghurt Folate Weetabix, rolls, green beans, Tomatoes, potatoes Vitamin C O. J. raspberries, tomatoes, Potatoes, green beans Iron Rolls, weetabix, baked beans, Salmon, tuna Calcium Cheese, yoghurt, milk, O. J. Zinc Ham, tuna, milk, cheese, beans, Rolls Fibre Baked beans, rolls, potatoes, Carrot, banana Breakfast Baked beans 80g Sprinkle grated cheese Muffin 50g Margarine 15g orangeness Juice 25ml (dil) Mid-morning snack Milk 100ml Banana 100g Lunch Grilled salmon 75g Boiled potatoes 100g Green beans 50g Fromage Frais 60g Raspberries 40g Mid-afternoon Water snack Pineapple in succus 80g Fruit yoghurt 80g Tea Wholemeal rolls 60g Margarine 15g Ham/tuna 30g Tomatoes 35g Cucumber 20g Carrot sticks 35g Sponge pudding 90g Task 6 AC 5. Please note we would need to check the ingredients of the cottage pie and check whether wacky are used in the vicinity of this meals preparation. 1. No. 2. Georgia, Isabel, Abra, John. 3. We might endanger the children allergies or offend/go against cultural practices. 4. Joshua = would get a inflorescence that could be inflamed, itchy or develop hives. Georgia = could get an uncomfortable stomach and/or dissolution. Noah = could have a small reaction e. g. minor swelling to his lips or face or a severe reaction e. g. an asthma like reaction with swelling of the throat (anaphylaxis). Isabel = could develop symptoms of wheezing, diarrhoea or vomiting.Abra = we would be going against his (& his parents) culture and not giving him the respect, experience and understanding of his ethnic group. John = if he is a vegetarian by choice we would be going against his wishes and life-choices to which he has a right. 5. Parents (I would presume) know their children best. If the advice is ignored you could cause their children to have an allergic reaction, whether mil d or severe, cause harm or discomfort, or endanger their lives. Task 8 AC 5. 4 This would have to be done quite sensitively and tactfully when it comes to the parents as some may take offense if we make them feel that they dont know best. With regard to my setting we do not cater for the children ourselves as they go into school to eat a hot dinner.These are provided by a catering company who produce a 4 week menu which is available to parents. We do provide healthy snacks for the children to have whenever they wish. The children know that crisps, biscuits etc that may be in their lunch boxes are not suitable to eat at the snack table. What could be done is a topic/theme of foods to incorporate the criteria from the EYFS Understanding the World, obviously the other areas of the EYFS can be covered within it because of the interdependency. Also the children sometimes have a small homework challenge to complete over a term or ? term. It could be to make a list of foods at home on a t raffic light i. e. ed unhealthy done to green healthy. This would then give the children the chance to talk to parents/carers about the foods they have and may help to promote parents/carers into changing their diet slightly if they see too many reds. Perhaps the children could make a food carapace on which they could draw, stick pictures etc of their favourite foods. They could then make a large plate for mummy or daddy thus helping to reinforce the feature that children do not need to eat the same size of it portions as adults. Weight is very often a sensitive give in and misconceptions of a slightly overweight child being described as looking healthy dont help the issue.Any weight gains or losses that are quite extreme would have to be talked about with their parent or carer. Hopefully this would result with visiting the doctor (who may then refer to a dietician or give life-style advice) to check that there isnt any underlying medical condition. At the present time I onl y know of children who have intolerances or allergies to certain foods I have not had the experience of talking to a parent about their childs eating habits ,because, I presume, the fact that we do not do the catering. But I would hope that because of the good home/school link at our setting any food concerns noticed at home would be shared with us and then we could give advice and get together some information to help them.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
INTRODUCTION Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889. He died on 27 May 1964. He was an Indian nationsman who was the branchborn (and to learn the longest-serving) prime minister of India, from 1947 until 1964. One of the leading figures in the Indian emancipation movement, Nehru was elected by the Congress Party to assume office as self-sufficing Indias first Prime Minister, and re-elected when the Congress Party won Indias first general election in 1952. As one of the founders of the Non-aligned Movement, he was in addition an important figure in the international politics of the post-war era.He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi respectful meaning scholar or teacher) and, specifically in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The son of a wealthy Indian barrister and politician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the leftfield wing of the Indian National Congress when still fairly young. ascending to be come Congress chair, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a charismatic and radical leader, advocating spot independence from the British Empire.In the long struggle for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was eventually know as Gandhis political heir. passim his life, Nehru was likewise an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of economic development could be addressed by poorer nations. PERSONAL LIFE AND EDUCATION Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family. Nehru was educated in India and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boys school, Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge.During his time in Britain, Nehru was in any case known as Joe Nehru. On 8 February, 1916, Nehru married seventeen year old Kamala Kaul. In the first year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini. Life and career Nehru increase the flag of independent India in New Delhi on 15 sniffy 1947, the day India gained Independence. Nehrus appreciation of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, coupled with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, are recognized to have guided him in formulating socialist policies that influence India to this day.They also glow the socialist origins of his worldview. He is some(a)times referred to as the Architect of Modern India. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as Prime Ministers of India. Successor to gandhi On 15 January 1941 Gandhiji said, few hypothesise Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It give require much more than difference of sentiment to estrange us. We had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor. FinalyearsNehru had led the Congress to a major(ip) victor y in the 1957 elections, but his g overnment was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party subversive activity and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotism, although actually Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of dynasties he said, indeed it was wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet.Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy nigh notably, she used his oft-stated personal deference to the Congress Working Committee to stab through the dismissal of the Communist Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her cruelness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was hurt by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake ou t an individualism independent of her father.Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian treaty over Tibet, in by and by years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese antagonism over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant asylum to the Dalai Lama. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru trustworthy the Indian Army to annex Goa from Portugal in 1961. epoch increasing his popularity, Nehru veritable criticism for opting for armed forces action. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. In a matter of months, the border disputes with China turned into open conflict. Nehru assumed that as former victims of imperialism (India being a colony itself) they shared a star of solidarity, as expressed in the p hrase Hindi-Chini bhai bhai (Indians and Chinese are brothers). He was dedicated to the ideals of brotherhood and solidarity among developing nations.Nehru, credulously, did not believe that one baby buster Socialist country would attack another and in any event, he felt secure behind the impregnable wall of ice that is the Himalayas. some(prenominal) proved to be severe miscalculations of Chinas intentions and soldiers capabilities. Following reports of his intention to look Chinese occupation of the disputed areas summarised in a memorable argument that he had asked the Army to throw them (Chinese) out China launched a pre-emptive attack.In a matter of days, a Chinese infringement of northeastern India exposed the weaknesses of Indias military as Chinese forces came as far as Assam. Widely criticized for his governments poor attention to defence, Nehru was forced to sack the defence minister Krishna Menon and seek U. S. military aid. Nehrus health began declining steadily , and he was forced to spend months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963. Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the invasion of India by the Chinese, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust.Upon his bribe from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a cheek attack. He died in the early hours of 27 May 1964. Nehru was cremated in congruity with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. LEGACY As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern Indias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy.He is praised for creating a system providing universal base education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educa tional institutions such as the on the whole India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institutes of Technology, and the Indian Institutes of Management. In addition, Nehrus stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonalty among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities.This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer occupy to one another as allies against a common adversary. While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary honorary society which promoted the translation of regional literatures amidst languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, Integrate or
research lab Section 1 Wednesday 110-400 M. Moore Zoology Lab 1 Morphology of Dragonflies In analyzing the morphology of dragonflies by looking at two assorted time periods and the water levels, entropy was found to ornament that ashes sizing might be directly influenced by water levels. By looking at the dragonfly species Sympetrum vincinum during the 2001 drought and 2008 normal rainfall, the info showed that thither was no statistical difference in abdomen understanding (p rate 0. 20741). There was a statistical difference in fore wing continuance (p take to be 0. 006), hindwing area (p value 0. 000164) and thorax depth (p value 0. 0001). The means provided from the different species showed that there was a small difference from 2001 to 2008 and that the 2008 data was smaller with the normal amount of rainfall opposed to the 2001 draught.The Mean for 2001 of the fore-wing duration (23. 30mm), Hindwing area (169. 88mm2), thorax depth (6. 04mm), abdomen length (21. 08mm) , were big than 2008. The 2008 means are as follows, Forewing Length (22. 06mm), Hindwing Area (148. 61mm2), chest Depth (5. 25mm) and Abdomen Length (20. 0mm). In the study Fitness and body size in mature odonates it was found that body size has an great role in the fitness of dragonflies and is directly related to their ability to regorge and survive (Sokolovska, Rowe, and Johansson 2000). Through this study it was found that there was no statistical difference in the abdomen depth from 2001 and 2008 with varying water levels. This suggests that the dragonflies did not change their abdomen size because that particular size was the one that trounce aided their fitness, not relying on water levels.Egg Laying in Petrels productive versus Failed Eggs In the coincidence of the happy globes and the failed junkys, there was a statistical difference among them concerning the eggs length, bigness and mass. This leads to liking that the failed eggs were not cared for as well as the successful eggs had been. For the comparison of the successful versus the failed eggs, the egg length (p value 0. 01849), egg breadth (p value 0. 00057) and the egg mass (p value 0. 00057). In the study of strips Storm- Petrel done by Huntington et al. n 1996, they found that there may be various reasons why there are unsuccessful egg hatching with these birds. In the data analysis of the successful versus the failed eggs the reasons that there is a statistical difference between them may be because of nesting site, pensiveness time, or size of parental birds (Huntington et al. 1996). There are many factors to hand to the reasons why there is a statistical difference between the sizes of the successful versus failed eggs. This data proves that there is a solid difference between the egg sizes and this will lead to further studies to gain more information.Egg Laying in Guillemots Inter- Year Effects The data found from the analysis of measuring the length and breadth of eggs from Guillemonts to see when the birds had better reproduction ability from the send-off year of their replication in comparison to their second or 3rd year. The data illustrated a statistical difference between the egg length and breadth from the graduation exercise year to the second or third year. The birds produced larger eggs in their first year of breeding in comparison to their second or third year breeding.The length comparison between first year and second or third year (p value 0. 00036) and the breadth comparison was (p value 0. 019112), which both exhibit a significant statistical difference. The egg size and shape varies on many different factors including the environment, the age of the female and when the eggs are laid (Butler and Buckley 2002). This analysis proves the hint that egg size is affected by the age of the female and that the first breeding season of the female produces the best eggs.Works Cited Butler, G. R. , Buckley, E. D. 2002. Black Guillemot. The Birds of noneth America, No. 675. Huntington, E. C. , Butler, G. R. , and Mauck A. R. 1996. Leachs Storm- Petrel. The Birds of North America, No. 233. Sokolovska N. , Rowe L. , and Johansson F. 2000. Fitness and body size in mature odondates. Ecological Entomology, 25239-248. panel 3. Wing covariant recorded for male Sympetrum vincinum at Lemon Stream in Franklin County (ME) in September 2001 and September 2008. Table 3. . Morphological variables recorded for male Sympetrum vincinum at Lemon Stream in Franklin County (ME) in September 2001 and September 2008. Table 6. Egg measurements collected on smashing Island (Newfoundland, Canada) from nesting Leachs Storm-petrels in 1983 (from Butler, unpublished data). Table 9. Black Guillemot egg measurements collected on Great Duck Island (Hancock County, Maine) from banded adults in their 1st and 2nd and 3rd breeding seasons 1991 and 1993 (Butler and Barkley 2002).
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Junior Cert English Functional create verb tout ensembley Introduction and Overview The Functional Writing section of Paper I acquires the scholar, in as close as possible, to deliver in the style of individual who every accustoms vocabulary for a living, or is conducting business or eventful matters through create verb eachy or lyric. This part of Paper I strays onward from fiction, tho is not entirely devoid of opport unit of meacertain(p)menties to recitation computer address communication in a creative or dramatic fashion. In most cases the student whitethorn hand over to use their imagination to provide detail to pass their work seem realistic and give it the au indeedtic feel. The marks in Functional Writing argon given for the k right a substanceledge of the style and line of voice essential for the undertaking, and for the understanding of the strainingat required.Awargonness of Audience and Task In all cases in this section, your choice of vocabulary, and your use of tone and register give be dictated to you by The intended recipient and/or earshot. Your instrument of deli truly.In short, you commode either use a formal or informal style of address. You should take into account the season, status, and size of the auditory modality you atomic number 18 dealing with. Your delivery should always be crusadeing to create the attach impression of both who you are and what youre translateing to do.For utilisation, you would use a formal style of address if you were writing a permitter to your tantalise manager asking for a loan to take your own business. Your language would be confident, unless not aggressive informative, unless not laboriously so enthusiastic but not all overzealous. The impression created on the wedge manager is that you are reli fitted, competent and trustworthy, and your business allow for be a huge success.For your own entertainment you might want to write the shoot possible permitter of app lication for the in truth(prenominal) loan- you would be over-familiar, disrespectful, vague, repetitive, and riddled with inaccuracies almost yourself and what you want to do. You can then guess what response this would get from the same bank manager passage through their morning mail. This then is the break to Functional writing awareness of the tone you are to take, and the choice of language to use to reinforce that tone.An usage of a task that you would be asked to bang with an informal style is to imagine that you realize water been asked by a night club that you are involved with to make a introduction to a associate of twelve year old primary school children to encourage them to join. You would be yielding this verbally, so when you would prepare your material beforehand, you would stress come upon info on several occasions, to parry having the same basic chief repeated infinitely. As your audience would be unlikely to impart firsthand experience of what you are taking active, you would use the simplest language possible, and use short, sequential, informative language. You would similarly use an informal tone, as you would want your audience to think your group would be welcoming and fun, not preoccupied with taking everything too securely.Here is an example of a completely made-up extract from my very busy diary. look at the language and tone I would use for each of the following tasks in just one day 1000 Book holiday tickets over phone from travel agency.1100 Complete and edit intelligence reputation for honcho on efficiency of new sys.1200 Address fundraising lunch for Kidney Dialysis unit for Childrens Hospital.200 Write congratulations add-in for birth of deposits daughters first child.300 Deliver presentation to investors on Company performance.400 Talk to business journalist ab break through new product range.600 Attend parent-teacher meeting at countersigns new school.800 Coach under 12 team introduce new training drills.1000 Convince very disagreeable wife that Ive had a long day.At both 1200 and 300 I allow be addressing a group of businesspeople. However, there are differences. People allow for not want to be to a fault serious at lunch, so I will be able to use a respectful but informal tone. I whitethorn even be able to use language that will fix my audience franticly. However, at 300 I will affirm to be very formal and very structured in my use of language and terminology for the business meeting. Look at the way my 1100 task is compose.Will I get away with that use of shorthand and slang in the report itself? Of course not what is acceptable as a note for your own use is not acceptable for a report for someone elses stateing. Will it be easier to present information to my 300 or 800 appointment? In the afternoon everybody will be fresh. Will they be as sharp in the evening? Should my card for my secretarys daughter be written with the same tone and language as my re port for my employer? any of these questions are central to the radical of functional writing. Make sure what you are doing is appropriate to your task and your audience.Reports.A report can be written for a publisher, radio programme, or television broadcast. No matter whether its to be read or spoken, start with the most important details first. You should deal with the following installment of facts 1) what has happened 2) how it happened 3) why it happened. The first section, what, will also accept where, who and when.A report doesnt only have to include the facts, it can also include opinions, in the form of sources from the relevant experts and authorities, and also some degree of guessing as to what will happen next, and what consequences there will be. Unlike a review, the writer is there to convey the truth and facts of the matter. They are to be unbiased, non-judgemental, and let the facts speak for themselves. A s closely reporter will trust their audience to make up its mind in the right way at at a time it has all the facts.The Tabloid Unlike the Broadsheet, the Tabloid newspaper makes no finger cymbals aboutchoosing cases in a story, and actively tries to persuade its readers to share its opinion. They very much like to take a light visualiseted approach to news material if at all possible, and frequently use puns in headlines. They also avoid putting in too many views or opinions on any given subject. They like first-hand accounts from people involved in devising the news, and will avoid analysis, as they prefer to be very set in their focus on the story.The tabloid journalist likes to gain an emotional response from their reader, and will not shy away from showing where their sympathies populate in any given story. They will some times choose to present deliberately one-sided reports on what may sometimes be very complicated issues. They like stories that involve celebrities or famous people, and avoid serious treatment of politi cal or economic issues as much as possible. They thrive on scandal, and what they believe is the publics insatiable lust to see what goes on behind closed doors. Tabloids pride themselves on their passing in-depth sports coverage.The average reading age (age at which a reader would be expected to understand all contents without difficulty) for a Tabloid newspaper is just nine years. Tabloids like simple and short sentences. They use puns and wordplay to highlight and make memorable the key thrust of their story. They avoid using complicated terminology, and long sentences. They also highlight key-points by having several sub-captions to stories, and by using several illustrations to put across the message visually as well. Tabloids have always been traditionally strong on visual information and colour pictures. In recent years tabloids have abanthroughd over-reliance on the page-three girl feature as they are trying to encourage much women readers.The Broadsheet A broadsheet new spaper is characterised, not only by its large size, but by the attitude it takes towards journalism, and the presentation of news stories. Primarily, a broadsheet will focus on political, economic and lifestyle features. It will present its main stories in a very in-depth and detailed format. They will take a very serious tone with the reader, and will avoid anything that might seem to be trivialising an issue, for example, a pun in a headline. They prefer a serious, sombre, and oftencomplex approach to news-stories.Broadsheet newspapers try out not only what happened, but how it happened, why it happened, if it happens frequently, what can be done about it, and they will also mention when similar events occurred. They like to bugger off many individuals related to the event, and experts to give quotations and opinions on what has happened. The broadsheet journalist likes to get along impartial and unbiased, and avoids any sense that their emotions might be affecting what they w rite in any way. They like to convey the impression that they give you the tout ensemble truth.Some broadsheet newspapers are physically huge. The average reading age (level of difficulty) for reading a broadsheet and understanding everything in it would be cardinal years, which means you would be able to follow everything. Broadsheets are only now knockinning to embrace the possibilities for the use of colour in their papers. Traditionally they have been very black and white affairs, but are increasing the cadence of photographs they publish.Reviews.The art of the reviewer is to give the reader just enough a suggestion of what it is youre talking about, just enough to whet their appetite. If you obstructor a Sunday newspaper, you can find reviews of motorcars, concerts, films, restaurants, even hotels Nothing is too small, or too large to avoid being reviewed. You could be required to write a review of a favourite film of yours, or to write a blurb for the back of a novel.Unli ke a report, which is essentially factual, a review gives you far more scope to let your opinions and feelings do itn. You can say what you liked or disliked about what youre reviewing, and that is almost important as a factual description of what youre reviewing. You can create either a very positive or negative impression on your reader by the tone and language you use. You should assume that your reader has a general interest in the area, but may not be familiar with exactly what youre going to tell them about.It is easy to criticise something, and often after saying how corky something is, you will find yourself repeating your verdict without informing the reader of why, how or what was bad about it. If you are still looking to fill space, try constructive criticism. Any reviewer can pronounce whether something is good or bad only the inspired reviewer can point out what was done well, and conversely, what opportunities were disjointed.For example, if you are reviewing the si tcom Friends, then you should fill in the backdrop first for the reader. It is advisable to go into some detail about the characters, and then finally to attempt some analysis of why it is you like or dislike it.Interviews.Q Whats the difference between an interview and writing negotiation? A Interviews are essentially pieces of dialogue, but without the qualifying he saids / she saids at the end of each piece of speech. The different parts of the conversation can be put as question and answer exchanges (Q and A), or if it is a more informal interview which is very similar to a conversation, then you can call yourself Interviewer, but refer to your subject by their Surname. Keep your questions short, and let your interviewee expand on them.Q What are the things I should try to do, and what are the most common problems? A A bad question to ask is anything that would encourage your interviewee to give a monosyllabic answer, of the yes/no variety. A good question is one which gives t he interviewee a chance to illustrate with examples from their life, work, or to ponder on events important to their work, lives, and past or future. A good interviewer gets to the point quickly, and their questions will never be longer than the answers they receive.I once interviewed Seamus Heaney while in college, and committed all of the above mistakes. The Sample settle below I have had to invent to cover my embarrassment As well as turn outing in mind your interviewee, bear in mind the audience who will be reading this interview. You want somethingthat is informative, but not technical, and which allows the person or subject to come across well to the reader. There was a fashion recently in newspapers for interviews in which you ascertained more about the interviewer than the interviewee, but thankfully, this has now passed.Q So, I basically just make the entire thing up then? But how do I structure it? A If you are stuck as to where to start, pick an example of an interviewe e who would be appropriate, and write out the list of questions you would like to ask them. indeed all you need to do is invent their answers, going by what you hold up of them. If youre still stuck, then ask what theyre doing now, what they were doing previously, and what they hope to be doing in six months time. You can also ask if they have achieved all they want to do, or if they think other peoples impressions of them are important. Bear in mind though that your questions will ultimately estimate on who the intended audience for the interview is. If they are your age, then ask questions you think your friends would like to know the answers to. Within reason, of course.Speech Writing The attainment of speech writing could be relevant to Personal Writing or Functional Writing.How to write, deliver and appreciate a good speech.The key to writing and delivering a good speech is to remember at all times that the loud vocaliser is dealing with an audience. The writer/speaker mu st also bear in mind at what occasion the speech is to be delivered. A speech to be given at an EGM of a company approach with bankruptcy will be drastically different in its structure, tone, and proficiency than a speech to be given by the same speaker at a wedding later that week How to write a speech.(For this section, we will consider a speech as that which a speaker would be called upon to prepare for a debate, or public speaking competition.) First, read your motion carefully. In the Junior Certificate, you will be invited to speak either for or against the topic. In deciding whether to speak for or against the motion, dont necessarily choose the side of the motion whichyou support choose sooner the side of the argument that will give you the most arguments to use in your speech. A good conception is to brainstorm all the possible arguments both for and against, and when you see which side gives you more avenues of thought to pursue, choose it.Second, having chosen your sid e of the debate, decide that the motion is a good or bad creative thinker becauseThis then will become the argument of your speech. The argument is the central case which you will introduce, build upon and then summarise. Often it is best to have to have three reasons Example For pileus Punishment is a good idea because 1. It deters other criminals from committing serious crimes 2. It is cheap, efficient, and labour saving 3. It eliminates the possibility of repeat offences Against Capital Punishment is a bad idea because1. Miscarriages of justice cannot be find out 2. It makes killing right for some yet wrong for others, thus introducing a double standard when there should be a simple story that murder is a crime 3. Prisons should be for rehabilitating offenders, not for revenge All of the above statements should then be supported by example, but remember, in a debate, your argument is more important than your examples. A good speaker is always restating their argument a bad s peaker is always lost in a fog of example. This is how your argument becomes informative and clear.Third, decide on the structure and tone you want to use in your speech. Some speakers may like to start their speech with a story, anecdote or quotation that will then illustrate their arguments to follow. This gives the speaker a chance to make the speech unique, and make it more relevant than a theoretical word of honor of some issue that has never had, or will never have any affect on the speaker.What tone are you going to use? overturn making sweeping statements, such as we all know what this is going to lead to. Instead, pitch such ideas to the audience in the form of rhetorical questions Do we want our society to be like this? Avoid the use of too much jargon, and if you are forced to, make sure to define the term immediately after you first mention it, so the audience will be informed for when they will next hear the term. Do not believe that your audience are already experts on this issue you may need to fill them in on the bedrockfirst. Do not do this in a patronising way, but instead say that you want to focus their attention on the key issues. In this way you will be more persuasive, and less arrogant. overly much arrogance and you will end up alienating your audience from your point of view.Opening comments.Depending on the occasion that the speech is to be delivered, start with the most important dignitaries present, and proceed through your list to the end, which is usually your crevice speakers. A standard opening for a school debate would be Chairperson, Principal, Honoured Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Students, Fellow Speakers, I have come before you immediately to speak on the motion that(insert motion here) Continue to refer at present to the audience at intervals throughout your speech, and conclude with a summary of all your arguments, and by thanking the audience for their time and attention.Ladies and Gentlemen, having put f orward the facts, I beg you to support/oppose this motion, that(insert motion here) How do you know if you have written a good speech? Imagine you are listening to that speech from the audience. To a member of an audience, no matter where, a good speech will always have the following qualities.1. It will be desirable to the tone of the occasion, whether solemn, or celebratory.2. It will be informative, but not so technical that it either confuses or loses you.3. You will be clear at the end of the speech as to why the speaker feels in the way they do about the topic they have spoken on.4. The speech will emphasise why the issue is important to everyday life, rather that some abstract worry that may never affect you.5. You will have been given a definition of the issue, and more importantly, a series of suggestions or steps as to how this issue should be dealt with.6. You will have true a sympathy for both the speaker and the issue that they spoke upon.
research the right to a preliminary examination and the role of the grand control boardA preliminary hearing may not be held in every criminal typeface in which a not indictable supplication is entered. Some states conduct preliminary hearings only when a felony is charged, and different states utilize a grand jury indictment process in which a designated group of citizens decides whether, based on the governments establish, the cocktail dress should proceed to trial. Last but not least, the possibility always exists that either time prior to the preliminary hearing a criminal case will be resolved through a plea arrangement between the government and the defendant.A Grand Jury determines whether there is decorous evidence for the trial. Grand juries carry out this duty by examining evidence presented to them by the prosecution, and issuing indictments, or by investigating alleged crimes and issuing, presentments. A grand jury is traditionally larger and more distinguishab le from a petit jury, which is used during trial. Both of these are good for both parties because it gives a materialize for both parties to see what evidence and figure out how the state is dismissal to proceed. The DA must only present enough evidence to persuade a value that he has enough evidence to go to court.The refutation may not know if the DA has much more invoke evidence in the future, so it can be unknown to the defence and be a guessing game. It offers a chance for a judge or jury to decide if the case merits going to trial, and if it doent hence the defendant is released. But if there is very good evidence, and the Defense realizes that they descry that the Prosecution has very good evidence, then it is a chance to plea bargain, in which both parties may wish to do, in order to rescind drawing out proceedings.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Palestinians deserve to have peace after what had happened in Gaza, I mean, who would refuse hurt the stack and the earth itself. Its causing agony to the Palestinians when they did no occasion and leaveing to share, however the Hams were involved in payback towards the Israels which is probably a promising idea for them. Although, what the Hams did to get revenge was Just thoughtless of what they did because initial they are unprepared to defend their area. And their area is beneath, down in the wine cellar with no secure at all.Whats depressing of all is hearing and beholding innocent children get killed by a bomb that was not unfermented of the Israels. Recently, they shot a bomb at an elementary school where hundreds or thousands of children died and it was Just truly Especially for the littlest ones who are scared out of their marbles I cant even imagine the danger that is going on and if I were to experience a life or death situation, it would be terrifying. Also, in spite of appearance my soul I can feel the excruciating pain from the Palestinians because of the good- pull up stakes I have ND its as well as I should say that I AM one of THEMWhat irks me the most are the people who are Just watching the torturous event happen which is slow not do take a stand for what is obviously counterbalance and I honestly wish I can do some amour, notwithstanding at age fifteen I appear to be as well young (Yet, I did not say that I wont do anything when all the way I will as I get older, only when the simplest thing that I can do is write a heartfelt earn to the people of this world and for them to briefly be inspired by it as I will too) o do anything extraordinary by ever-ever-changing the Middle East into peace between Israel and promised land.I do BELIEVE that I can definitely transform the negativity energy with a more than positive aspect for the people who need It and deserve It. There will be a chance to spread the Word that Is needed t o be HEARD In order to bring PEACE for our people In the Middle EAST of a Land that will soon be called (In my opinion) Plasterer as an official name. Everything Is possible If the World gathers together to unitePalestine vs. IsraelPalestinians deserve to have peace after what had happened in Gaza, I mean, who would dare hurt the people and the earth itself. Its causing agony to the Palestinians when they did nothing however willing to share, however the Hams were involved in payback towards the Israels which is probably a smart idea for them. Although, what the Hams did to get revenge was Just thoughtless of what they did because prototypic they are unprepared to defend their area. And their area is beneath, down in the root cellar with no secure at all.Whats depressing of all is hearing and eyesight innocent children get killed by a bomb that was not smart of the Israels. Recently, they shot a bomb at an elementary school where hundreds or thousands of children died and it was Just truly Especially for the littlest ones who are scared out of their wits I cant even imagine the danger that is going on and if I were to experience a life or death situation, it would be terrifying. Also, indoors my soul I can feel the excruciating pain from the Palestinians because of the benignity I have ND its as well as I should say that I AM one of THEMWhat irks me the most are the people who are Just watching the torturous event happen which is wearisome not do take a stand for what is obviously veracious and I honestly wish I can do something, but at age fifteen I appear to be too young (Yet, I did not say that I wont do anything when distinctly I will as I get older, but the simplest thing that I can do is write a heartfelt garner to the people of this world and for them to briefly be inspired by it as I will too) o do anything extraordinary by changing the Middle East into peace between Israel and Palestine.I do BELIEVE that I can definitely transform the negativ ity energy with a more than positive aspect for the people who need It and deserve It. There will be a chance to spread the Word that Is needed to be HEARD In order to bring PEACE for our people In the Middle EAST of a Land that will soon be called (In my opinion) Plasterer as an official name. Everything Is possible If the World gathers together to unite
Introduction and BackgroundListo system is unmatchable of the go bying brilliant service commission with long history of success at earlyish 1990s. In early 1090s, the confederation quickly grew into one of the top lifelike service companies in the beness Listo system VISION statement is To be recognized as a leader in supplying character reference graphic name product and serve to our customers and to be respected by our clients and staff.Listo Systems MISSION statement is We strive to develop superior graphic design products and services for our users through state-of-the-art engineering, innovation, teamwork, and leadership. (Justanswer.com) DiagnosisDevelopment of e-commerce in young warlike commercial world has debased need of middleman, brokers, and distributor, which radic wholey changed the traditionalistic layer distribution channel .The development of scientific infrastructure epically ecommerce calling system non only shifted the power from trafficker to buyer, but in addition gave consumers the ability to search for best quality, service, term, tractableness and innovation. This gave wide flexibility in consumer buying process. If customer were non pleased with social clubs product or service, they feel secrete to switch brand to early(a) firm.Technologies make believe allowed Listo Systems to provide quality services and products faster and to a greater extent than than efficiently. However, overbold engine room has also been beneficial for Listo Systems competitors. The competition has gr accept signifi exposed firetly in number and in the quality of services and products that they provide. The increase in technology has also led to an increase in customer directs and expectations. Customers want services and products however Listos Management was less concerned with the opinions and was more(prenominal) focus on production and profit.Instead of enlisting employees opinions, more directive orders were given. Lis to leased a number of late-make managers and employees and due to lack of training and increase complexity associated with adding forward-looking layers to the hierarchy resulted in the boldnesss goals and objectives comme il faut unclear. Analysis and evaluationAnalysis and evaluation weed be do using two theories.PEST AnalysisPolitical During 1990 various countries were implementing flip-flop liberalization, and perfect competition market for globalization where Listo also felt its bear on both banishly and domineeringly Economic Europe and rest of the world felt the impact of government policies concerning taxation, labor union, cyber regulation, exchange rate policies . genial Huge social change due to change in technology like internet media, was felt by listo system.Consumer stead and opinion, consumer buying manikin , fashion and role model, were serious matter to focus during 1990 which hit listo sturdy enough to panic. Technological Competing Technology devel opment, could be handled through research ground strategy, research based funding for replacement and solution of technology , culture and communication, and consumer buying mechanism vs technology did non stand full attention. testimony1. Listo should need to implement Research based funding for computing technological change should be implemented 2. Proper management strategy should be implemented to cope globalization and political change. 3. The expectancy theory should be implemented to motivate the employee provide them the assurance effort bequeath lead to acceptable performance (expectancy), Performance will be rewarded (instrumentality), andThe observe of the rewards is passing controlling (valence). (Herzberg, 1968)How has Listo Systems felt the impact of power shifting from the seller to the buyer? accord to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, a professor at Harvard Business School, The major contend management faces today is living in a world of agitation and uncertainty where new competitors arrive on the scene daily and competitive conditions change. We tooshie no longer count on a constant world that is un changing and unvarying and manage accordingly.This statement implies in the nerve of Listo System and its overall performance in a competitive market. Regarding its history, Listo was precise much concerned somewhat(predicate) its employees demand and their participation in decision making of the familiarity. To operate in a world determine by globalization and information revolution, the company focused more on the advancement of technologies and improvement in productivity. exclusively the employees were taken as a secondaryimportance.They were not provided with proper training of new technology and their views on decision making process were turn offd. The significant changes in information flow, created wad issues and called out the need for mass training in the organization. The company started liberal emphasis to the advancem ent and was more concentrated on production and profit. delinquent to the lack of proper training, the employees became less motivated. For a break and trenchant performance, it is necessary for an organization to determine the demeanor and require of the employees. Satisfaction of the needs leads the employees to work more efficiently and utilely.A positive environs should be provided to make them more productive. But Listo ignored the requirement of the employees. And, the employees could not endure the rapid change in the organization. Moreover, new layers of supervisors and employees were added which slowed the pace of decision making. every last(predicate) these changes resulted in lack of employees motivation, lack of clearness of goal and a shift of power from seller to the buyer. The demotivation of employees and lack of clearness of the goal in the agency resulted in low quality production. As a result, the company could not cope with the growing and changing need of the customer and started losing them gradually.According to Michael Hammer, customers want more products from less money, more quality and service and more flexibility and convenience and more innovation. While the organization had been expanding in coat and competence level, productivity was stirred and quality decreased. It was very toilsome to put to death the needs and wants of powerful customers who have the ability to search for best service, quality, technology, innovation, and so on repayable to the fast internet technology, customers have become advised of the new quality products with cheaper price and their expectancy level has become higher. They want more products in fewer prices and within a limited time.Directing, changing and influencing deportment of such customers is significant for the sustainability. The company must provide real value to them either by offering virile products and services or commence d cause the cost or by creating new technolog ies that is more efficient. Listo ignored the issues of consumer demeanor as well as employees demeanour. Ultimately, the power shifted from the seller to the buyer of the products and services. Customers were aw are of the substitute products and services that are quality product at lower price which resulted as benefit to the competitorsof the company.As seller whitethorn raise the market price by withholding supply, the buyers may be able to reduce the market price by withholding the demand. To take in the attraction of such a huge market with all the experience and information, Listo had to strive hard. It should have focused more on customers behavior and their needs along with the employees expiation at work. at that place was no other option for the agency but to match the changing and growing need of powerful customers. The management needed to make new strategies to sustain in the changing market.The power shifting from the seller to the buyer had a big impact on the overall performance of the company. Due to this change of power, now the supply of the products and services depend on the mirth of the customers need and wants. It was now up to those large number of buyers to evaluate the products and make radical changes in the supply. Thus, the power shifting from seller to the buyer was an unexpected failure and gradual decrease in the demand of products and services of Listo Systems.What external surroundingsal manners are shineing Listo Systems? An environmental factor plays a crucial role in the development of any organization. in that respect are two pillow slips of environmental factors that affect the performance of a company (i.e. informal and external).Internal factors of environment refers to events, factors, people, system and conditions inside the organization that are tone downlable by the company.Whereas, the external factors of environment are those that occur outside the organization but causes the changes inside and a re more times uncontrollable by the management of the organization. Based on Achieve Model, the external factors are the environment that can make up ones mind the performance an unmarried even if he/she has all the ability needed to the subcontract. Listo Systems was also affected by both the internal as well as external factors in the environment.The internal factors include the goal of the organization, companys rules and regulations along with its aim, organizational culture, and the employees working in the agency. Change in the internal factors of Listo had a not bad(p) impact on its performance. Similarly, the external factors like customers, competitors, technology, suppliers, the economy, resources, and the regulatory system had a significant mold on its operation, growth, and long term sustainability. As per the information provided in thewebsites, Listo being more focused on new technology was losing its employees motivation.As a result, the productivity was low and the quality was below the expectation of the economy, the customers, the suppliers, and so forth Customers want quality product at cheaper price and if they dont get it, they walk a musical mode for a substitute product that divers(prenominal) competitors of the organization provide at lower price. The very(prenominal) thing happens in the case of Listo systems. The customers were taken away by the competitors because of the quality product at a cheaper price. The competitors were aware of the consumers behavior and expectancy.But, Listo had ignored the consumers behavior along with the other human behavior. It is very essential for an organization to understand the human behavior because it has to deal with human with different understanding, thoughts, needs, values and priorities. scour though the external factors are outside the company, it is important to monitor and admit the external environment in a continuous manner. Since, Listo didnt have a continuous monitoring on ex ternal environment, it lost its control oven those factors and it was very difficult for the agency to sustain in the market.It could not aline the changing and varying environment as well as needs of the customers who play a vital role in the success of a company. Customers being dissatisfied with its products and services chose to move on to the substitutes provided by the competitors. And, the competitors having a good understanding of the human behavior made changes with their products to attract the customers of Listo. They were aware that if they provide a quality product at that moment they can win those customers which made Listo to lose its customers and made the demand low.Advancement in technology needs proper training which was not provided by the agency to its employees and thus in that location was lack of motivation resulting in low productivity. Thus, the suppliers of the materials and resources of the company were not willing to work with Listo systems because of its failure in the market. These external factors affected the overall environment of the graphic design company and changing its great success in the world to failure ultimately. CHAPTER- 2 COGNITIVE haphazardnessIntroductionCognitive noise deals with the relationship among ones self-perception and their environment. Leon Festinger analyzed that when twoperceptions applicable to for each one other are in conflict, it creates the status of randomness. Diagnosis / AnalysisAlderfers ERG theory states that thither are three core needs to motivate people growth, relatedness and existence. Jackie had been look for a large organization where she could develop her long-term career goals. Her positive bearing towards cycle was influenced by her observations and experiences that she had during her school life. There she tracked what happened to all the account put in the chip pail in each classroom. recommendationThere are many such employers who understand the employees behavio r and adapt themselves to make them influence for a better performance and indicate the future behavior of employees. So, there can be other options and opportunities for the craft for Jackie. Because if she term of enlistments with Dorf, she might get disappointed if she cant ignore the companys pickaxe to recycle and later on get disappointed and it will be harmful to both the company and Jackie herself.1. reason Jackies dilemma in terms of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance deals with the relationship between ones self-perception and their environment. Leon Festinger analyzed that when two perceptions relevant to each other are in conflict, it creates the situation of dissonance. Jackie Hartnett, an individual with a high technical skills and a strong passion for the well-being for the environment, got chore at Dorf elevator car Factory.Since, she was very much interested and concerned about the well-being of the environment she could pay her argument of reducin g the harmful effect of downs and garbage coming from factories by the means of recycle in an effective way and could give an outstanding performance. She had a very positive bearing and behavior towards her military control as well as the boss, Charlie Damon. A positive behavior and attitude at his/her job helps a person to reach out the desired goal and bliss of physiological, social, safety, esteem and self-actualization needs.Alderfers ERG theory states that there are three core needs to motivate people growth, relatedness and existence. (Managementstudyguide.com) Jackie had beenlooking for a large organization where she could develop her long-term career goals. Her positive attitude towards cycle was influenced by her observations and experiences that she had during her school life.There she tracked what happened to all the paper put in the trash pail in each classroom. Jackie implemented a school- wide recycle program where she could apply her encyclopaedism and experi ences to make the environment free from the harmful elements. In this program, all the waste or papers were put in a separate trash pail and sent to a recycling factory to change it in reusable consumer goods.Her boss was finding her very attentive and efficient at work. She was experiencing a job satisfaction which matched her expectancy. Job satisfaction is achieved when needs of an individual is fulfilled. Both attitude and job satisfaction are interrelated. If Jackie had a negative attitude towards her job, she would have never been satisfied. Her needs were satisfied as well. But sometimes needs are blocked in the attempt to bring through a goal. Frustration occurs when the goal attainment is blocked. Whereas, aggression comes with an assertive and uncongenial behavior.Rationalization is a situation when a person makes excuses for his/her failure to accomplish a goal and regression is a tendency to react. Moreover, fastening means repeating the same behavior as per Maier. An d, resignation relates to a situation when an individual gives up to the situation or move on aft(prenominal) a prolonged thwarting. All these situations come under cognitive dissonance.2. How could this new information on Dorfs actual recycling program affect Jackies perception of the company she works for? What impact could this have on her overall performance? be her personal values around recycling strong enough to determine who she works for? Being experienced for a year in the job of recycling Drofs performance had alter day by day. At the same time, she came to know about the facts of the recycling program and she then uncovered the actual information showing that some(prenominal) factory shipments of waste material being sold to another company.She made some quick research and came to the point that those other companies didnt decently dispose the waste products in a hygienic way. The waste products and materials were not disposed in the right way to keep the environme nt free from the harmful effects of it. And, when she approached her boss, Charlie,with the facts and information regarding the waste materials recycling, she was taken aback. She was informed about the costs associated with the approaches to greener.She was dissatisfied with the reply and was disheartened in a way that she started thinking about her personal values which must match with ones job. Her personal value towards recycling doesnt allow her to stay in the same job anymore a kind of frustration was created in her attitude as well as behavior. The actual recycling programs changed her attitude and lead her to cognitive dissonance where two perception of her own were moving in her mind.She was in a dilemma whether she should leave the job and break the commitment she had made with the company or she should continue her job instead of knowing the fact of it. But she had to decide and choose between her own perceptions which were a very difficult situation. Her personal values were strong because they were created as an attitude from school life environment. Its very difficult to change such a strong and positive attitude which is reinforced in years. It could determine what she was actually working for, whether for her personal values or for the movement of goal.3. Do you think Jackie should ignore the companys election to recycle or not and just keep doing her job? Is she willing to walk away from a good paying job with benefits? Are there other employers who are likely to be more open to recycling programs, and should she pursue opportunities with those companies? The recycling program of Dorf Car Factory created a psychological discomfort in Jackie and she was bound to change her perception to reduce the tension by ignoring the companys choice to recycle. Cognitive dissonance in her changed her attitude and also affected her performance. Her goal wint be achieved if she quits from the job.Her needs will be blocked which will lead her to an irration al behavior in a continuous manner. If she is not satisfied at her work place, the environment where she works, she cant satisfy her job as well as the boss. She will be frustrated and the frustration will develop to the extent that will occur an aggressive behavior. Later on this aggression will take place of rationalization, fixation and resignation if continued for a long period of time.In that situation, she cant ignore the Dorfs choice whether to recycle or not because her inner perception and values are very different than her job requirement. But an employee should never ignore the fact that an organizations achievement of goal is also the responsibility of theemployee working there.Their performance and activity can improve or hinder the overall performance and play a crucial role in attainment of the organizational goal. At the same time, job satisfaction motivates one to work better and increase the productivity. iodine cant work in a negative environment where employees satisfaction is not given any priority. Firstly, she should understand her need. Then, she should essay to handle the situation and make herself comfortable with the job and focus on her work and try to change her attitude towards the recycling programs.If her attitude is changed positively, she wont have any problem at her job at Dorf. Secondly, Jackie should try to find out a job that matches her satisfaction, competence, values and perceptions. And, she should have the broader knowledge of the companies and should also find out whether shell get the same type of job environment and employers or there are many more opportunities in the market where she can fit herself and get job satisfaction which wont hamper her values and ethics. In my opinion, our values and attitude brings a sense of self-confidence and responsibility in us.So, Jackie should stay with her own values and move on for a job that satisfies her motives and needs instead than hanging on for a better payment. Ther e are many such employers who understand the employees behavior and adapt themselves to make them influence for a better performance and predict the future behavior of employees.So, there can be other options and opportunities for the job for Jackie. Because if she stays with Dorf, she might get frustrated if she cant ignore the companys choice to recycle and later on get disappointed and it will be harmful to both the company and Jackie herself. Definitely, she should pursue to the opportunities of recycling programs with other companies for her better development and achievement of her own goal and should walk away from the Dorf Car Factory where she cant get a job satisfaction and motivation.BibliographyF, H. (1968). One more time How do you motivate employees? Harvard. Herzberg. (1968). One more time How do you motivate employees? Harvard . Justanswer.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.justanswer.com http//www.justanswer.com/homework/5gcht-case-study-listo-systems-challenge-growing -organization-listo.html Managementstudyguide.com. (n.d.). Retrieved
Sunday, February 24, 2019
In this short essay, I chose a farming I traveled to that opened my eyes to different cultures. France is a orbit full of diversity and a place I would feel esteemed to return to, in hopes of learning more from the culture they have to offer. travel to France I expected to be entranced by the grand computer architecture and art that had contributed to history, I was mistaken. I found the heart and soul of the people in the people. I realized, after much travel, that it is the people and their culture continually that amaze me.After exploring France, I discovered the invigoration of hearing a dissimilar language and learning how to adapt to the new environment. While nearly travelers carried the pride of their nation, I found it invigorating to assimilate into my new surroundings. In order to accomplish this, I decided to learn French in hopes that continual study of common practices would allow me to live the life of a Frenchmen. Upon arrival I found it easy to adopt the concep t of unexclusive transportation, and each metro ride became more satisfying as I met varying people of varying nations.I then adjusted my feeding schedules and found a taste for French cuisine. With this, I commenced greeting my logger Frenchmen with, Bonjour monsieur I was determined to not leave as a stereotypic tourist. I made it my goal to experience the nooks and crannies far from tourist France that is so often portrayed. That is when I found myself sitting in a local anaesthetic brasserie sipping une lemonade and thinking this is one adventure of a lifetime. Now being hind end in Texas, I hope to embark in my next adventure, to be apart of Colgate Univesity, an institution rich with culture and diversity that produces diplomats of the world.
aggregate oncoming has become a common family term in the United States, due to the fact that about 16 million Ameri tail leave been diagnosed with coronary thrombosis artery illness. Harmonizing to American Heart Association, an American dies either minute due to coronary arteryl crease vessel unsoundness. coronary thrombosis artery illness besides known coronary tenderness unsoundness or ischemic ticker distemper encompasses other pathologies, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as angina and myocardial infarction ( mash onslaught ) . Coronary arteria disease occurs when on that point is a narrowing of the coronary arterias, due to the development of plaques taking to turn out down sums of oxygenated crosscurrent to the bosom. 2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart The bosom is an indispensable electronic organ that is responsible for pumping blood all throughout the innate structure and providing it with O and foods. It is the cardinal hub for the cardiovascular system and acts as the conveyance system of the entire structure, which performs via electrical conductivity practise. The anatomy of the bosom is composed of many restoreions, such as the four Chamberss the right and left atria and ventricles, legion blood vass such as the aorta, the pneumonic arteria and vena, and the coronary arterias, four valves, leash beds of tissue, etc. The aorta is the chief arteria that pumps the blood out of the bosom to the remainder of the organic structure the pneumonic arteria and vena conveyance oxygenated and deoxygenated blood receptively, and the coronary arterias make a Crown on the bosom musculus and let the myocardium with oxygenated blood and foods. The valves in the bosom argon responsible for forestalling backflow of blood and let the blood to go around in an changeless manner. The electrical conductivity system of the bosom accounts for the whipping of the bosom leting it choose and act as the pump of the organic structure. 2, 3 Pathophysiology of Coronary arteria Disease When the coronary arterias become occluded due to plaque construct up a status called coronary artery disease occurs. coronary artery disease means tapered and hardening of the arterias taking to damage to the blood vass and is a major subscriber to many bosom diseases and upsets 4 . These atherosclerotic plaques argon formed be from lipid and fat sedimentations, chiefly being cholesterol, which is a ground why diet is besides major hazard mover in underdeveloped coronary arteria disease. Arteries ar composed of three beds adventita, intima, and media the plaque tends to develop between the intima and media beds 5 . These atherosclerotic plaques narrow the lms of the arterias doing lessen sums of blood to make the bosom and extra time indurate them doing decrease tractableness during vasoconstriction and vasodilatation 4 . Additionally, the atherosclerotic plaques can free doing thrombosis and ischaemic pillow slips 5 . When the coronary arterias map is compromised, the bosom does non have equal sum up of oxygenated blood and foods doing lessen cardiac map. At times of wildness, the organic structure will render to antagonize these alterations to accomplish homeostasis, by working harder than normal nevertheless, drawn-out perspiration initiates a cascade to many disease procedures and pathologies, such as myocardiopathy, bosom failure, arrhythmias, cardiac apprehension, and classically myocardial infarction ( bosom onslaught ) 4 . Most patients of coronary arteria disease experience angina and/or myocardial infarction, or perchance end.Hazard Factors of Coronary arteria Disease Coronary arteria disease tends to be the to the highest degree common cause of decease and disablement in the United States. The chief hazard factors of coronary arteria disease are as follows positive household business relationship, physical inaction, unfortunate diet, smoking and/or intoxicant consumption, along with other diseases pathologies like broad(prenominal) blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterin, and fleshiness. A individual that has positive household history of bosom disease of a first grade relation is at gr go througher hazard of growing coronary arteria disease 2 . Physical inaction, sad diet, and fleshiness go bridge player in manus for developing coronary bosom disease. Obesity has become an epidemic that affects unmatched in four Americans and consequences in many dangerous effects. Heart disease has become the cause of decease in indus ravelised states compare to developing states, due to sedentary life style and increase fast-food pulmonary tuberculosis. The American Heart Association encourages patients to exert on a regular basis and eat healthy and this besides accounts for better forecast of coronary arteria disease even if person has other hazard factors 2 . Research indicates that a diet that s rich in omega 3-fatty acids, such as fish helps pro tect against vascular disease 2 . One of the most preventable hazard factors for any disease is smoking, and for cardiovascular disease it is the general anatomy one preventable cause 2 . The World Health agreement states that 1 twelvemonth later on surcease of smoke, the hazard of coronary arteria disease lessening by about half 2 . Additionally, increased age and sex are other lending factors to coronary arteria disease. Statistically, males are more likely to develop coronary bosom disease at an early age, nevertheless the hazard peers for both work forces and freehanded females after post-maturity. Other diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and/or hypercholesteremia combined with coronary arteria disease consequences dangerous effects, which it is why it s recommended to maintain a close oculus on cholesterin, blood force per unit area and glucose degrees and checked on regular terms 2, 4 .Symptoms of Coronary arteria Disease Most patients of coronary ar teria disease are symptomless, whereas other patients can show with a compartmentalization of symptoms such as shortness of breath, stringency around the thorax, thorax hurting, Levine s mark, or perchance decease 2 . Patients that exhibit symptoms tend have beforehand phases of harm to their coronary arterias 4 . Angina is the authoritative bosom hurting most patients complain about that is caused by ischaemia. Ischemia is the inadequateness of O supply to a part of the bosom 4 . Patients can see angina at anytime, nevertheless classically it s exhibited after a individual has been involved in an immaterial activity, such as exercising. Angina can be categorized as stable, unstable, or Prinzmetal s ( discrepancy ) angina 2 . The Levine s mark is the authoritative display of a bosom onslaught that most histrions in Hollywood portray, when they are holding a bosom onslaught, which is a clinching fist over their tit 1 .Complications of Coronary Artery Disease/ What is a bosom onslaught?Myocardial infarction occurs when the bosom is deprived of oxygenated blood because of rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque, ensuing in a province of ischaemia. Supply meets demand speculation comes into drama, because the bosom is demanding oxygenated blood and foods, but the coronary arterias are unable to supply due to atherosclerosis construct up. The country of the bosom that the harm occurs to the bosom depends on the vass that are occluded, exhibiting a assortment of symptoms and/or complications 4 . For illustration, if the myocardial infarction occurs at the right atrium and upset the electrical conductivity activity of the SA node, it may do the patient to perchance endure from arrhythmias. Therefore, basically if a patient experiences a myocardial infarction at a crotchety part of the bosom that country will endure an ischaemic event and kills the bosom tissue hence doing it non-functional. Overall, a myocardial infarction has hapless forecast and ten ds to feign to morbidity and mortality 2 .Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease Coronary arteria disease is a status that develops overtime therefore there are nt any existent trials that can require if a individual is enduring from coronary arteria disease 6 . Healthcare suppliers use patient s history, physical test consequences, and appreciate hazard factors for developing coronary arteria disease 2, 6 . Electrocardiogram, emphasis testing, echocardiography, and research lab proving turn out to be the trial of dismantle by health care suppliers when analyzing patients that are at hazard of developing coronary arteria disease. Electrocardiograms besides know as an EKG or ECG detects the bosom s electrical activity, beat, bosom rate, axis, and any stirred expansions of the bosom 6 . An EKG is a speedy and painless trial and can state healthcare suppliers if the patient had or is holding a myocardial infarction 2, 6 . Stress testing can be induced by exercising or med icine for measuring ischaemia in a patient 2 . An echocardiography ( echo ) utilizes sound abject ridges to supervise the bosom s activity, including the size, form, and blood flow. Laboratory proving, such as blood trials are conducted on a regular footing to notice the degrees of cholesterin, sugar, and proteins such as inflammatory markers 2 . Other tools, such as chest X raies, angiography, antielectron emanation imaging ( PET ) , and cardiac cautery can be utilized for patients with greater hazard factors and/or beforehand phases of coronary arteria disease 2 .Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease Coronary arteria disease is a complex disease since it encompasses other pathologies nevertheless intervention options for coronary arteria disease tends to be simple at its early phases, such as lifestyle alterations. Patients are encouraged to partake in curative life style alterations ( tender loving care ) , such as day-to-day exercising, eating healthy well-balanced repas ts, and emphasis and weight direction. A comprehensive tender loving care program besides helps play other diseases, such diabetes, high blood pressure and fleshiness 6 . The American Heart Association recommends patients with hazard factors to use the DASH diet, which encourages ingestion of fruit and veggies on a day-to-day footing, eating fish twice a hebdomad, restricting salt and intoxicant ingestion 5 . TLC helps cut down the hazard of bosom disease by take downing cholesterin and keeping a organic structure spile index ( BMI ) of less than 25, which is considered to be normal 6 . For advanced phases of coronary arteria disease medicine such as decoagulants, acetylsalicylic acid, beta-blockers, Ca way blockers, and glyceryl trinitrates are prescribed to assist cut down symptoms, lower cholesterin and blood force per unit area, prevent blood coagulums 2, 6 . acetylsalicylic acid is the taking medicine to assist alleviate angina and prevent myocardial infarction. Pat ients that have extended harm to their arterias or have experienced a myocardial infarction may necessitate medical executes, such as angioplasty or coronary arteria beltway grafting ( CABG ) 6 . Angioplasty or transdermal coronary intercession ( PCI ) is a medical process do to open blocked or narrowed coronary arterias 6 . Normally, heap refer this medical process as holding a stent raise in, which helps prevent future obstruction from happening. CABG is an extended surgical process done where physicians use blood vass from other countries of the organic structure that are nt blocked to short-circuit narrowed and damaged coronary arterias, therefore bettering the blood flow to the bosom 2, 6 . Overall, patient instruction proves to be the outperform intervention option to assist forestall coronary arteria disease.Decision Levine sign- A Edmondstone WM ( 1995 ) .A Cardiac chest hurting does organic structure linguistic intercourse help the diagnosing? .A BMJA 311A ( 7021 ) 1660-1.A PMCA 2539106.A PMIDA 8541748.Chapter 10 pg 341 CMDTHuman Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 18 pg 662 Marieb/Hoehnclinical Pathophysiology made laughably simple BerkowitzAHA Website- hypertext transfer communications protocol //www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/Heart-Attack_UCM_001092_SubHomePage.jsphypertext transfer protocol //www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cad/
Saturday, February 23, 2019
It has been much than phoebe bird centuries since Christopher Columbus reached the the Statess. We have it away a large(p) deal some Columbus, of course, and most the atomic number 63ans and Afri sewers who crossed the Atlantic after him. We bonk much less about the Indians. as Columbus mistakenly called them?the mass al ascertainy accompaniment in the States. yet we argon learning to a greater extent all the time, so I want to talk about advance(prenominal) contacts amidst endemic Americans and newcomers.We now estimate that as numerous as s nonwithstanding million people were living in North America 500 historic period ago, and that their ancestors had been on this continent for at least long dozen thousand years. For all this time?hundreds of generations?they had remained isolated from Asia and Africa and atomic number 63, building their own bump world. Over many centuries, these prototypic North Americans developed diverse cultures that were as varied as the demesnescapes they lived in. And they developed hundreds of distinct dustups.Looking back, what can we say about archean encounters between these diverse aborigine Americans and the strange newcomers who arrived from crosswise the naval? Let me give you a fewer things to think about. Remember, first of all, that these tokenish contacts stretched over the entire continent and occurred over several centuries. The encounters were nearly as varied as the people involved. only when key issues such as language, belief, technology, and disease arose regularly in dissimilar times and places. We whitethorn neer know exactly about the first contacts from overseas.Long before Columbus, occasional boats may have arrived across the North Pacific from Asia, or across the Atlantic from Africa or Europe. They may have sailed intentionally or drifted by mistake. yet such encounters were brief. So was the encounter with Norse Vikings. They visited Newfoundland in Canada about 1,000 years ago?nearly 500 years before Columbus. Their little liquidation of 160 people was short-lived. We know from sagas (family stories passed down orally across generations) that local Inhabitants attacked the Norse settlers, forcing them to retreat to Greenland after several years.In contrast, the newcomers who followed Columbus after 1492 be far more numerous and more willing to stay. Though few In numbers racket at first, these European strangers brought supplies and then enforcements from across the sea. Now, regard that you argon peerless of those newcomers, approaching my small portion of North America for the first time. As Native American, I have diverse friends and enemies living all about me, and because I engage in trade I am used to encounters with strangers who do not speak my language.But you are different in various ways, and I have probably already comprehend rumors about you?some true and some false? from neighbors who have seen your ships. And mean me, your ships are a big surprise. My people live near the ocean, and we take care boats. But when we addle out to observe you, we are Impressed by the size of your ship, with Its tall masts. On the East Coast, I greet you from a birch-bark canoe or a dugout canoe. Indians are small. If you enter bother Sound, the cypress canoes of the Northwest Coast Indians are much larger.Maybe you are Russian fur-hunters reaching Alaska. If so, you are amazed at my light, quick kayak. If you are the position explorer James Cook approaching Hawaii for the first time, you are struck to see our outrigger canoes and surf boards. One way or another, we can push off from the beach or the river mouth and visit your ocean-going vessel. But it is strange for us you needed iron tools to create this ship, huge sheets of stuff to make it sail, and navigational charts to find your way. We have none of these.On the other hand, you are totally ignorant of our home waters. It is no secret that along Florists strand and North Carolinas Outer Banks, Native Americans often found European shipwrecks. We Indians know ?and we may be willing to tell you?which anchoring spots give bul strugglek from storms. We know the local streams and which house sites might flood in springtime. We know where there is fresh water?which you probably need after weeks at sea? ND we know sources of food for every time of year.The Indians in New England, watching the Pilgrims starve at Plymouth, showed them how to locate clams in the mudflats at low tide, how to trap search, how to plant corn, and how to hunt strange, tasty birds called turkeys. But not all first encounters occurred near the coast. Before the middle of the 16th century, Spanish explorers were marching inland so far and so extravagant that rumors of their arrival precisely had time to precede them. In the 1 sass, Native peoples living in the Carolinas, Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas ere surprised by the barbaric invasion of Despot and his army.At the same time, Indians further west on the coarse Plains experienced the sudden arrival of Coronals force, traveling from New Mexico on hogback in search of sudden wealth. In these two instances, and in many later confrontations, Europeans reacted at first with disappointment, frustration, and violence. The new environment seemed strange and on the hook(predicate) local people did not fit European hopes and expectations. For Native Americans, the or so serious outcome of initial encounters, whether near he ocean or far inland, was the arrival of contagious diseases? unacquainted with(predicate) disorderes that they had never experienced.Again and again, foreign newcomers brought plaguey illnesses with them. Three hundred years would elapse between the early Spanish explorations and the forced removal of Native Americans from much of the expanding United States in the asses. That is a huge stretch of time, and the encounters between Indians and non-landing varied widely across thos e triad centuries. Gradually, especially in the East, Non-landing gained the upper hand in terms of unembellished numbers. Some general estimates regarding the southeast, from Virginia to East Texas, illustrate this point.In 1700, four out of five persons in the entire region were Indians. But by 1800, Indian numbers had declined and the European and African population had risen so fast that scarce one person in thirty was a Native American. If sickness and death moved unevenly in one direction, from non-landing to Indian, Christianity moved in the same direction. Many of the earliest encounters involved missionaries, both Catholic and Protestant, who worked energetically to convert Native Americans to their Christian faith.In New England, the Reverend John Eliot dog-tired years translating the Bible into the Massachusetts language, and in 1663 he printed 1000 copies to be used by converts known as efforts often met with fierce resistance. In the Southwest, Catholic priests and missionaries accompanied the earliest Spanish settlers in New Mexico, and efforts began around 1600 to suppress the Pueblo religion with harsh punishments. But Pueblo leaders fought back. In the prospered Pueblo Revolt of 1680, Indian rebels expelled the Spanish colonizers.The Pueblos attacked missionaries, burned churches, and punished Christian converts. succession the Christian religion and the strange new diseases moved in one direction, didactics and trade moved in two directions. Lets take education first. Europeans were a literate society many could write letters and read books. In America they began to share this powerful tool through schools. In the 17th century, Harvard build a separate Indian college on its campus. In the eighteenth century, Dartmouth College in New Hampshire emphasized Native American education, at least for a few.But at the same time, Indians who understood the American land and the natural world offered education to the newcomers. They were constan tly explaining matters of geography, climate, and food. They knew when to plant and harvest crops, when fish were plentiful in certain streams, when the abundant oak trees dropped their acorns. Then knew which plants were edible, and how to booster cable game. Gradually they shared their knowledge with newcomers. In Louisiana, white settlers often displace a young son to live among the local Indians to learn their language and pave the way for future trade.Trading, like education, was a two-way street. From the start, Europeans were scour the land for items they could ship home and sell at a profit. scarce metals or spices would be best, but they saw few signs of these items. What they found quite was fur. In the Southeast, the soft hides of whitetail deer could be scraped and packed and shipped to Europe to make aprons and gloves. In New England and Canada, the pelts of beaver could be sent across the Atlantic to hat makers for the creation of fashionable beaver hats.Along the Northwest Coast, Russian traders obtained the valuable pelts of sea otters, which they could trade to the Chinese for spices and tea. More often than not, it was the Native Americans who hunted the animals and processed the pelts for shipment abroad. But if people in Europe and Asia were yearning for North American furs of all sorts, Native Americans were equally eager for unfamiliar trade items from Europe. Indians exchanged hides and pelts for woolen blankets and coats, yards of cloth and ribbons, supplies of buttons, beads, and thread.Metal items of all kinds correspond new and dramatic improvements in a world where utensils were shaped tardily from wood and rocks and clay. Metal knives and needles had obvious appeal. Metal pots, though heavy, were more unchanging and more versatile than clay pots. Besides, if they were poorly do and sprung leaks, they could be disquieted into pieces to be shaped into sharp arrowheads. When Dutch traders moved up the Hudson River to excha nge with the Indians for furs, the Mohawk called them Kristin, meaning metal makers. Iron axes and hatchets were especially desirable. Native Americans knew how to erase trees by peeling off layers of bark. They could fell them by slowly destroy away the base. But a durable metal axe made it possible to shape wood rapidly, whether building a house, carving a totem pole, or hollowing a dugout canoe. Various kinds of rum and spirits withal figured early and often in the trade. Hard liquor gave European traders an person consuming alcohol also became less alert?more subject to an unfair trade or a robbery.Two other unfamiliar items?the gun and the horse?swept across North America during the seventeenth and eighteenth century as a result of trade between Indians and non-landing. Laws passed in Spain prohibited Spanish colonists in the Southwest from trading guns to Indians. So guns moved steadily westward instead, purchased from the French and Dutch and English in the East. Once a tr ibe acquired guns through the fur trade, neighboring tribes worked desperately to acquire similar weapons, or else they risked being defeated in war or outdone as hunters and fur traders.The horse, reintroduced into North America by the Spanish in the Southwest, moved in the opposite direction, After the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, horses disruption north and east across the Great Plains?traded from one nation to another, or stolen in order to gain new mobility and power. A map shows all the way how the horse frontier and the gun frontier pushed in opposite directions. During the eighteenth century, tribes such as the Sioux on the Northern Plains and the Comanche on the Southern Plains gained glide slope to both guns and horses, giving their cultures great power.For a long time, these complex exchanges turn out mutually beneficial. Both Indians and non- Indians felt they were gaining valuable benefits from trade. But eventually, major changes gash and ended this beneficial and agre eable trade. For one thing, the non-landing population continued to grow, maculation the Indian numbers declined sharply as a result of war and disease. But even more importantly, European newcomers sired Indian land even more than they wanted peaceful trade.Soon, land itself became an item of trade, and land that could not be bought was taken by force. Gradually, we are learning more about early contacts between Indians and non- Indians, and the way these relationships changed over time. The contacts were numerous and varied. They took a different shape in every part of the continent, depending upon which Indian cultures lived there and which foreigners first invaded their land. At first, these contacts were often mutually beneficial, as strangers learned from, and traded with, one another.But later, sickness, warfare, and crushing demands for land changed these connections. Contacts became more lopsided and destructive, through long chapters of our history. So, from now on, I h ope that any time you see a horse or a rifle or a metal pot or a colorful ribbon you will think about these early contacts between Native Americans who had lived here for untold generations and newcomers who have been here scarcely five centuries. After all, these varied connections are a rich and forgotten part of our shared heritage here in North America. thank for Joining me.